9/20/2019

Women Men Love 

If you've been in the dating game for a bit too long, you know how hard it is to find a good match. If you are a woman, you might have even tried to wear more revealing outfits to compete with the younger girls, only to find yourself still single. And if you are a man, you might be feeling the pressure and tend to come on like gang busters to any woman walking. Well don't feel too bad because obviously there are a lot of people still single and will continue to act like this. The good thing for you is that you no longer will!
 




Having a penchant for colognes led us to write all that there has been written on colognes here. Hope you too develop a penchant for colognes!


GcD- GcE- GcF- NIL NIL 26 NIL NIL NIL Ulva lactuca 13. U1+ 14: U2+ 15. U3+ 16. U4+ U1-

Bassler, B.L.1999. Curr.Opin.Microbiol.2: 582-587.* Bernan, V. S., M. Greenstein, and W. M. Maiese. 1997. Marine microorganisms as a source of new natural products. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 43: 57 - 89.

Whiteley, M., K.M.Lee, and E.P.Greenberg.1999. Identification of genes controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA.96:13904-13909.

REFERENCES Alim, I., and K. Yuto. 2003. Mc21-A, a Bacteriocidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenotica sp. nov. O-Bc 30T, against Methicillin -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicro. Agents Chemoth. 47: 480 - 488.

Table 1. List of Seaweeds species collected for the present study SPECIES NAME FAMILY Halimeda gracilis Chlorophyceae Ulva lactuca Chlorophyceae

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

illaud, A. C, and B. Austin. 1990. Inhibition of the fish pathogen, Serratia liquefaciens by an antibiotic producing isolates of planococcus recovered from sea water. Journal of

Allison, D. G., B. Ruiz, C. Sanjose, A. Jaspe, and P.Gilbert. 1998. Extracellular products as mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. FEMS Microbial Lett. 167: 179-184.

Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

"Since my involvement with Wiley and environmental endocrinology, I have become more keenly aware of the nuances of hormonal interaction and understanding the molecular aspects of hormonal relationships," said Courtney Paige Ridley M.D."It answers the questions being posed regarding cancer and other dysfunction afflicting not only menopausal women but those women with significant alteration of cycle created by interaction with our estrogen toxic environment."

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

In the present investigation, it was aimed to produce the antibiotics from the seaweed epibionts through quorum sensing principle. The bacterial isolates of seaweed epibionts were identified as species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio from seaweeds Hypnea musiformis and Gracillaria edulis. In this study the Pseudomonas acts as a producer strain and Vibrio as inducer strain. The recent finding says that the seaweed epibionts having potential to control the metabolic activity of competitor organisms. Allison et al., 1998 reported that many bacterial strains up on attaching to a surface produce exopolysaccharides or exopolypeptides. In addition, it has been postulated that exopolysaccharides could mediate the attachment of the bacteria to the surface and induce metabolic changes.

Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

Now the flip side of the coin, only because not everything is one sided. Sex and romance are two things that should be taken very serious. So, sex on the first date maybe out of the question, maybe a bit to taboo for some people, but it is out there none the less. Having sexual pleasure from someone you don't really know has its own set of risks. Embarking on an adventure of sex that involves two people that are at the first stages of something that can be grand is a scary thought and should be thought about wisely.

ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are sessile communities with high cell density that are ubiquitous in natural, medical, and engineering environments; they are fascinating since they are primitive tissues with an advanced chemical communications network. Currently, there is an explosive amount of biofilm research, most of it with the ultimate aims of biofilm prevention, control, or eradication.The present investigation was aimed to study the cell signaling principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms , totally 54 bacterial isolates were made out of 20 seaweed species. Among 54 bacterial isolates 17 of them producer, another 17 of them inducer strains rest of 20 isolates were normal that have not showing any signs of activity. The 17 producers and 17 inducer strains were subjected to the cross species induction by quorum sensing principle and found that only 3 of them have responded to the cross species induction in production of antibacterial compound against the respective inducer strains. All the 3 producers and inducer were identified by biochemical analysis and surprisingly that all the 3 producer strain belongs to Genus Pseudomonas and inducer strains were belongs to Genus Vibrio. The supernatant obtain from mixed culture of Pseudomonas & Vibrio shows the antibiotic activity against the various Vibrio species which were isolated from other sources. Such as Vibrio from primary film, Vibrio from sediment Vibrio from seaweeds epibiotics. The obtain results clearly shows the particular Pseudomonas from seaweed epibionts has the capability of producing potential antibiotic compound against wide range of Vibrio species through quorum sensing.

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

Zhang, L., P. J. Murphy, and A. Kerr. 1993. Agrobacterium conjugation and gene regulation by /V-acyl-L-homoserine lactones. Nature 362: 446 - 448.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

The feelings we get from sexual pleasure is a feeling like we get from being happy or sad. Nevertheless, it's still a feeling and that's it, a simple emotion. Do we deny ourselves the chance to be happy or sad? No we don't! So what is the big deal about sex on the first date? It is all perceived how we view it in our minds and what we where taught when we where younger by the people who raised us. Old fashion people will say it is bad, the not so old fashion generation will say it is good.

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

Having a penchant for colognes led us to write all that there has been written on colognes here. Hope you too develop a penchant for colognes!



Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Envronmental endocrinology has roots in the earliest calendars, which historically were lunar calendars, based on the time interval from one new moon to the next, or also known as lunation. In colder countries, the concept of the year was determined by the seasons, specifically by the end of winter. But in warmer countries, where the seasons are less pronounced, the Moon became the basic unit for time.

A. Live cells of producer and inducer strains B. Live cells of producer strain alone C. Live cells of inducer strain alone In culture system A 200ul of 16 hours old broth culture of both producer and inducer strains were added to the 15 ml of nutrient broth.

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

Burgess, J. G., M. Elizabeth, M. Bregu, A. Meams-Sprugg, and K. G. Boyd. 1999 Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70. 27-32.

There's also evidence for photoperiodicity controlling estrogen reception along with the obligate melatonin response. Melatonin blocks estrogen receptors. Once light increases with the waxing moon, melatonin secretion diminishes, and allows more estrogen.

Speaking from experience, I never did have sex on the first date or even the third date. Sometimes I am happy with it, and the other times I wish I did. Some people view sex like it is love making, not entirely true, well really it all depends on who you talk to. Some people will say that the sexual pleasure you give and receive should be from somebody special. The sexual attraction that is felt for someone is a thing that can not be held back but the actions can be. I guess the question should read, "Do we act on or feelings of sexual desires on someone we just met when the sexual attraction is there?"

Seaweeds itself secretes secondary metabolites to prevent fouling and grazing. In addition to that epibiotic bacteria on macro algae can also produce antifouling compounds that work in concert with the seaweed derived compounds to protect the seaweed surface. Recent studies have highlighted important roles of epibiotic bacteria colonizing the surface of seaweeds and releasing antifouling compounds. For the past 50 years antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing cures for formerly life threatening diseases. However, strains of bacteria have recently emerged that are virtually unresponsive to antibiotics such multidrug resistance, arising mainly through antibiotic misuse, is now recognized as a global health problem. In this situation, it is clear that new classes of antibiotics are urgently needed. Many marine bacteria have been shown to produce secondary metabolites that display antibacterial properties. The first antibiotic from a marine bacterium was identified and characterized in 1966. In addition, bacteria in biofilm on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a higher proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environments (Burgess, et al., 1999). Marine epibiotic bacteria, associated with nutrient-rich algal surfaces have also been shown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites which inhibit the settlement of potential competitors. Recently a lot new novel antibiotics such as Phenazine, thiomarinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 1-hydroxyphenazine 2-n-heptylquinol-4-one, 2-n-nonylquinol-4-one pyolipic, loloatins, agrochelin, sesbanimides, pelagiomicins, indomycione and indomycione have been identified from various marine epibiotic bacterial organisms. In particular, some species of the genus Pseudomonas produce both antibiotics and several other bioactive substances. For example, Pseudoalteromonas rubra and Pseudoalteromonas aurantia have been reported to be antibiotic producing bacteria. The phenomenon of higher organisms utilizing their associated microflora for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites is common in the marine environment (Yotsu, et al., 1987). A study of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% whereas that from sea water was only a few percent. In addition, some bacteria that previously did not produce any active compounds have been found to be producing such metabolites when they are exposed to other bacterial species or extra cellular chemical from other bacteria. Bacteria may also produce antimicrobial compounds when they sense the presence of competing organisms. However, few attempts have been made to study such chemical communication between different bacterial species or how this might affect. The secretion of antimicrobial compounds (Mearns-Spragg, et al., 1998). Bacterial communication by the chemical signals for specific function is simply known as Quorum sensing. In which a bacterial population receives input from the environment and elicits an appropriate response (Hiroaki and Kristina. 2003). The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and response to diffusible signal molecules. Bacterial cells sense their population density through a sophisticated cell to cell communication system and trigger expression of particular genes. Tne first system of density-dependent regulation was studied in detail with the luminescence of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) by Bassler et al., 1997. Eventually, they discovered that 3-oxo-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl) hexanamid or N-3-(oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL) was responsible the agent in the broth that induced luminescence. Followed by this many researchers have confirmed that in Gram negative bacteria acyl-homoserine lactone is responsible for the cell to cell communication system.

Dictyota batryensis Phaeophyceae Sargassum sps Phaeophyceae Hypnea musciformis Rhodophyceae Acanthophora dendroides Rhodophyceae Jania rubens Rhodophyceae

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION The organisms responded to the quorum sensing process alone were identified by the following biochemical analysis.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

In concluding this discussion, the quorum sensing is wider spread among bacterial population then was previously thought, (In Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial communication). Current assays for antimicrobial activities are inadequate because some antibiotic producing bacteria may require the presence of another bacterial species. These findings have important implication for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria and may allow the development of new methods for screening novel compounds active against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Br B+ /Br B- Br C+/Br C- Br D+/Br D- Br E+/Br E- Br F+/Br F- BrA- Br B- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- NIL 39

ANTIBIOTIC ASSAYS Antibiotic activity was performed in duplicate using a standard paper disc diffusion method as well as well assay. In well assay 10mm in diameter wells were made in marine agar plates and the plates were swabbed with 16 hours old inducer strain. To these wells 200ul of cell free supernatant were added to each well. In paper disc assay the Watmann no.1 filter paper discs (6mm in diameter) were saturated with 200ul of cell free supernatant. The impregnant discs were Dlaced in the centre of the plates swabbed with test organisms. The plates were Incubated at 37??C overnight and observed for inhibition zone. The zone of inhibition was measured as the distance from the border of paper disc to the edge of the clear zone and expressed in mm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:

What ever your choice is, it is the right choice for you. Sexual attraction happens if we want it to or not. Everybody has their own opinion in this topic, just as I do and you do. If you decide to wait for that right person to come along and share nights of sex and romance with, so be it! If you are one for sex on the first date, the only advice I can offer is be careful, have fun and may your experience be as every bit of exciting as you hope!



Writing all this on colognes can be considered an obligation to us. This is because we felt obligated on imparting all this knowledge we knew about colognes.
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


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