11/19/2019

Learn More About Pheromones In Humans 

The discovery of pheromones in 1959 led to several developments in the areas of relationships and behaviors. Pheromones were originally associated with the chemical substances that animals usually excrete to send a message to their own species. Further research on the topic widened the definition of the word pheromones to include other species such as human beings. In fact, pheromones in humans became one of the favorite subjects of researchers all over the world.
 




Writing an article on athena pheromones was our foremost priority while thinking of a topic to write on. This is because athena pheromones are interesting parts of our lives, and are needed by us.


The collected seaweed samples were thoroughly washed with sterile seawater to removes the loosely attached bacteria/particles. Seaweed fronds were scrubbed with sterile cotton swabs to obtain epiphytic bacteria. Epiphytic bacterial organism in the swab were inoculated in sterile peptone broth (50% sea water) and incubated at 28??C in an incubated shaker (220 rpm / min) for overnight. After the incubation period the enriched cultures were serially diluted up to 10-8 concentration and 200 microlitre of each diluted samples were transferred into the nutrient agar plate (50% sea water). The plates were incubated at 28??C for 5 days and the plates with crowded colonies were selected. In the crowded plates those colonies, which showed the sign of inhibition zone around its margin to the neighboring colony, were selected and considered as producer strain. The neighboring sensitive colonies were treated as inducer strain. Both producer and inducer strains were streaked repeatedly until to get pure culture. The pure culture were properly labeled and subjected to the quorum sensing analysis.

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 2 In this experiment, culture supernatant was obtained as per the procedure given in the experiment 1. 50ml of supernatant was mixed with equal volume of 80% methanol and 1% acetic acid mixture and it was shaked thoroughly in a separating funnel. Finally the methanol and acetic acid fractions were collected and concentrated by evaporation using water bath at 55??C. The viscous colloidal residues were resuspended in 600 microlitre of 50% methanol and it was used for antibacterial assay against different test organism.

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

Colony morphology, Gram staining, Motility test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Indole Production, Methyl red test, Voges Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization test, Triple sugar Iron test, Nitrate reduction test, Lactose fermentation, Urease test

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

Wagner, V. E., D. Bushneil, and L. Passador. 2003. Micro array analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing regulons. J. Bacteriol, 185: 2080 - 2095.

GcA-, GcB-, GcC-, GcD- GcE-, GcF- Gracillaria edulis U1-, U2-, U3-, U4- Ulva lactuca SA- Sediment

6. Play with Sex Dice What truly turns me on is sex dice. If you haven't heard, sex dice is a set of regular dice but with sexual content on each face. For instance, there are sets that have one dice describing action words such as "lick, touch, tickle," and the other dice naming body parts such as "ass, tits, and lips." Sex dice come in many variations. There are some that describe a sexual position and a location to perform the act. Others are solely used for anal sex or oral sex. The list is endless. I personally own a set of just about each sex dice out there. I use them with my partners whenever I want to spice up the night. First, I'll start off slow and use a soft core sex dice. Then, as the night gets steamy, I bring out the freakier sex dice until we're engaging in the wildest sex ever! Since sex dice come in many variations, couples can find the right one for them. Whether your looking for some light fun or new ideas to spice up your sex life, these sex dice work wonders.

Trischman, J.A., D.M.Tapiolas, P.R.Jensen, R.Dwight, W.Fenical, T.C.Mckee, C.M.Ireland, T.J.Stout, J.CIarely. 1994. Salinamide - A and salinamide - B - anti -inflammatory depsipeptides from a marine streptomycete. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 116: 757 -758.

In this experiment among 17 Producer and Inducer strains only 3 of them have responded to the quorum sensing principle. (BrB+/BrB-), (GcC+/GcC) and (SA+/SA-)

According to the Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, researcher Rosemary Basson, MD concludes that women must convince themselves to want sex before their sexual desire kicks in. Many women agree, including myself. Arousal starts first in the mind. Give your woman sexy thoughts throughout the day to stir her sexual desire. Send her sexy text messages or emails while she's at work. Include little reminders from when you had great sex. Tell her what you want to do to her once she gets home. If your hesitant and are afraid she'll be offended, start off with a fun flirty text message. My personal favorites are from www.lingo2word.com. There you'll find hot text messages such as "I love every bone in your body, including mine!" These sexy messages are just what I need to start thinking about sex and becoming aroused throughout my day.

4. Talk Dirty Talking dirty was once intimidating to me, now it's essential to my sex life. In the past, my girlfriend's competed with one another about which boyfriend said the freakiest thing during sex. I use to be very jealous and wished my sex life was as exciting as theirs. One day, I asked them how they became comfortable with talking dirty and how it was introduced in their relationship. Based on their advice, here's what worked for me and what I suggest for couples.

Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

9. Exercise with her Did you know that working out increases sexual desire in women? A women's libido, is affected by the amount of testosterone in her body. As she ages, the levels decrease and her libido (her desire for sex) declines. Exercise works to promote testosterone levels in women and thus play a role in stimulating a woman's libido. So what does this have to do with turning women on?... Everything! After exercise, my mood is lifted; I feel sexy and confident all day. Men should take women on dates which involve physical exercise like bike riding or rollerblading. Her levels of testosterone should increase about 20 minutes into an exercise session, and will remain elevated for one to three hours after exercise. Through out the date, she will feel energized and pumped. As her testosterone levels rise, she will be open for sexual advances. Believe me, it works.

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.

Couples can invent their own games, complete with sexual penalties for losing as well! It's tantalizing fun! - Adele, Paris 7. Use Blindfolds

Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

According to James V. Kohl, coauthor of "The Scent of Eros," women are led by their sense of smell when it comes to sexual attraction. They are especially receptive at detecting pheromones, a special aromatic chemical released by humans to sexually attract one another. Another study, conducted by Bern University known as the "Stinky T-shirt Study" concluded that women were attracted to the pheromone chemicals left behind by men's sweat.

Miller, M. B., and B. L. Bassler. 2001. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 165-199. Msadek, T. 1999. When the going gets tough: survival strategies and environmental signaling network in Bacillus subtilis. Trends Microbiol. 7: 201-207.

Lemos, M. L, A. E. Toranzod, and L. J. Barja. 1986. Antibiotic activity of epiphytic bacteria isolated from intertidal seaweeds. Microbial Ecology. 11: 149-163.

Dictyota batryensis Phaeophyceae Sargassum sps Phaeophyceae Hypnea musciformis Rhodophyceae Acanthophora dendroides Rhodophyceae Jania rubens Rhodophyceae

*Corresponding author e-mail: vijay10bas@yahoo.co.in INTRODUCTION We are living in a microbial planet. About 71 % of the surface of this planet is covered by sea water. A typical milliliter of seawater contains 103 fungal cells, 106 bacteria, and 107 viruses, including pathogens that cause widespread mortalities and microbes that initiate fouling of host surfaces (Rheinheimer, 1992). Thus, marine plants and animals are continually exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful microbes. These microorganisms in nature exists as free living planktonic mode of life in sea water or it may exist as epibiotic organisms in various living and nonliving surfaces. Among living organisms, seaweeds and invertebrates act as suitable substrate for the establishment of epibiotic organisms Seaweeds are known to release a large amount of organic carbon into the surrounding environment providing a nutrient rich habitat for microorganisms like bacteria. Bacteria are generally considered to be independent unicellular organisms. One cell accomplishes all of the tasks of feeding, locomotion, 'reproduction, respiration and all other processes necessary to keep an organism alive. There are several classes of bacteria such as primary film forming bacteria, sediment bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, and epibiotic bacteria in various aquatic organisms. The marine surface environment is a site of intense composition for living space by a wide variety of organisms. Bacteria are generally recognized as primary colonizers of this habitat and are able to form biofilm on marine surface such as invertebrates and algae (Bryers, et al., 1982). Bacteria may also be abundant on the surfaces of some algae as an important epibiotic organism. In many cases, the bacterial population found to be specific, with changes occurring throughout the year or life span of the algal surface. This algal-bacterial relationship is symbiotic in most cases; the epibiotic bacteria in seaweed play a protective role by releasing secondary metabolites into the surrounding seawater that help preventing extensive fouling of the surface. Epibiotic bacteria are therefore attracting attention as a source of new natural products. Bacteria from the larvae of some crustaceans protect them from fungal infection by the production of simple antimicrobial compounds. Bacteria isolated from the surface of a tunicate prevented the settlement of barnacle and tunicate larvae exposed to the bacteria as biofilm in petridishes (Evelyn et al., 2001).

Writing an article on athena pheromones was our foremost priority while thinking of a topic to write on. This is because athena pheromones are interesting parts of our lives, and are needed by us.



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Tongat Ali is an herbal supplement that is used as a sexual stimulant. Never heard of it? Don't feel bad you are in good company; it is still not widely known about.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: QUORUM SENSING/CROSS SPECIES INDUCTION ANALYSIS In the present investigation totally 54 isolates were collected out of seaweed species. Among 54 isolates, 17 of them are producer strain, another 17 are the inducer strain rest of 20 isolates is normal and not showing any signs of activity (Table.2).

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

A. Live cells of producer and inducer strains B. Live cells of producer strain alone C. Live cells of inducer strain alone In culture system A 200ul of 16 hours old broth culture of both producer and inducer strains were added to the 15 ml of nutrient broth.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

What did it for me was his incredible ass massage. The extra attention to groping, rubbing, and squeezing my ass, got my blood flowing in all the right places. It was just what a needed to experience an intense orgasm later. - Marisa, CT

Listening to reggaeton stimulates erotic scenes to play out in my mind. I'm left fantasizing about freaky wild sex and become very horny. Even if you're not Latin and don't understand the language, bringing a foreign element to the scene such as this is highly erotic to women. After all, Spanish is the language of love! - Raquel, PR

The earlier genetic analysis in Pseudomonas reveals the Pseudomonas consist of two quorum sensing systems as Las R1-I and Rh1R-l and have linked with R and I genes, in addition recently a third Lux R homolog that is advanced to a cluster of quorum sensing - controlled (qsc) genes were detected. Las R is a transcriptional regulator that responses primarily to the Las I - generated signal and Rh1R is a transcriptional regularly that responses best to the Rhl -generated signal. In Pseudomonas auriginosa, at low population densities Las I produce a basel level of 3-O-C12-HSL. As density increases, 3-0-C12-HSL builds to a critical concentration, at which point interacts with LasR. This Las R -3-0-012-HSL complex that activates transcription of a number of genes [Whileley, et al., 1999].

My boyfriend uses this technique to get me oh so horny! First, he gently lays me on the bed , tells me to relax, and close my eyes. He softly wraps the blindfold over my eyes; then begins to caress my skin with his fingertips. Since, my sense of sight is gone, the rest of my senses are heightened. His every touch feels exciting and erotic. He goes on to remove my clothes, one by one and kisses my bare skin as he moves along. I never know what he is going to do next or where he is going to touch. My favorite is when he when he dips his finger in sensitizing oil and strokes the outside of my vagina softly then firmly. This technique is just what it takes for me to beg him to give it to me! I recommend men using this technique as well. Once your fingers land on the right spot, your women will be throbbing with arousal; she'll beg you for sex! - Ariana, CO

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are sessile communities with high cell density that are ubiquitous in natural, medical, and engineering environments; they are fascinating since they are primitive tissues with an advanced chemical communications network. Currently, there is an explosive amount of biofilm research, most of it with the ultimate aims of biofilm prevention, control, or eradication.The present investigation was aimed to study the cell signaling principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms , totally 54 bacterial isolates were made out of 20 seaweed species. Among 54 bacterial isolates 17 of them producer, another 17 of them inducer strains rest of 20 isolates were normal that have not showing any signs of activity. The 17 producers and 17 inducer strains were subjected to the cross species induction by quorum sensing principle and found that only 3 of them have responded to the cross species induction in production of antibacterial compound against the respective inducer strains. All the 3 producers and inducer were identified by biochemical analysis and surprisingly that all the 3 producer strain belongs to Genus Pseudomonas and inducer strains were belongs to Genus Vibrio. The supernatant obtain from mixed culture of Pseudomonas & Vibrio shows the antibiotic activity against the various Vibrio species which were isolated from other sources. Such as Vibrio from primary film, Vibrio from sediment Vibrio from seaweeds epibiotics. The obtain results clearly shows the particular Pseudomonas from seaweed epibionts has the capability of producing potential antibiotic compound against wide range of Vibrio species through quorum sensing.

Burgess, J. G., H. Miyashita, H. Sudo, and T. Matsunaga.1991. Antibiotic production by marine photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium purpuratum NKPB 031704: Localization of activity to the chromatophores. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 84: 301 - 306.

But on the northern tip of Sumatra (Aceh province of Indonesia) where the Tsunami occurred there still exist forests with a large areas of Tongkat Ali coverage. Tongkat ali from the Indonesia Aceh province can be purchased in wholesale and retail quantities from Sumatra Pasak Bumi.

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Once you've developed a strong bond with one another, she'll be looking forward to showing you a sneak peak of her wild side. The club is just the right place for it! - Natalia, Moscow

Rheinheimer, G.1992.Aquatic microbiology (Wiley, New York), 3rd Ed. Stead, P., B. A. M. Rudd, H. Bradshaw, D. Nobel, and M. J. Dawson. 1996. Induction of phenazine biosynthesis in cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa by L-N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone. FEMS Microbiology Letters 140: 15-22.

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:


Gabrielle Moore is author and owner of The Female Orgasm Revealed. She also owns the website http://www.femaleorgasmrevealed.com



This is our humble presentation on athena pheromones. Your reading it will add the necessary weightage to the presentation.
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


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People go about initiating relationships in different ways for many different reasons. When men and women have limited time for the dating scene, they often go online to prospect for a relationship with a member of the opposite sex. Online dating sites allow members to get to know each other by letting them screen potential dates for the things they have in common, such as a disability, or...

Expressing yourself as a lesbian You can come across lesbians in every races, classes, cultures and professions - they are everywhere, whether you believe it or not. Many women find different ways of expressing themselves as lesbians , be it in the usual stereotypical way of shaving your head and wearing dungarees or, my preference, simply being in touch with your inner sexual...

Pheromones act as a form of chemical communication between human beings. These chemicals are well known for their ability to attract members of the opposite sex. There are four common types of human pheromones: Androstenone, or A-None is found in both men and women, however, it is usually known of as a male pheromone because it creates a dominant and aggressive aura and projects an...

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi. ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are sessile communities with high cell density that are ubiquitous in natural, medical, and engineering environments; they are fascinating since they are primitive...

There is a new trend is selecting the right fragrance for someone you love known as personalized perfume. The personalized perfume sites offer to create a fragrance based on your loved one s personality and then create a customized blend just for them. While the idea is definitely quite unique, and the gift idea is really very cute and sweet, there is an inherent problem with basing a perfume...

So, you ve decided to try speed dating, but you have no idea what you are going to ask your speed dates? Here are some speed dating questions that will help you get the information you want out of potential long-term partners: Do you believe in love at first sight? What do you think is the most important value in a relationship? When was your last relationship? How long did it...

A sleeping Lover lays at the core of many timeless legends. A kiss, or magic potion is needed to awaken her. To grasp the eternal truths displayed so beautifully in these old texts, you need only to see it is not a story. It is instruction to you. It is your guide, your encouragement, your path to be a Hero. Strip away the allusions to sensuality in these old stories. They are the stories of...

If you have ever wondered what are pheromones you are probably not alone. In fact, there have been many people who have wondered what pheromones are, and a lot of research has been done on the topic. In the quest to find out what pheromones are, people have done research in the human world as well as the animal kingdom. This is because pheromones occur and do their work in both animal...





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