Do Human Pheromones Improve Your Sexual Attraction? 

Human pheromones are natural chemicals produced by the body that are thought to cause the attraction between opposite sexes. While it is believed that there is some connection, the real analysis lies in how much do human pheromones and sexual attraction depend on each other.

Dictyota batryensis Phaeophyceae Sargassum sps Phaeophyceae Hypnea musciformis Rhodophyceae Acanthophora dendroides Rhodophyceae Jania rubens Rhodophyceae

With people wanting to learn more about the history of human pheromones, it has provided the necessary incentive for us to write this interesting article on the history of human pheromones!

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

Perfume has been used throughout history for a variety of reasons. Perfume has proved itself to be a valuable commodity in both ancient and modern times, with the modern perfume industry turnover in its billions every year. Perfume is a luxury, rather than a necessity, and yet its popularity grows rather than wavers every year. The reason behind this is the enjoyment that the wearer gains, and this type of enjoyment stems from the recognised and unnoticed benefits that wearing perfume provides.

Table 1. List of Seaweeds species collected for the present study SPECIES NAME FAMILY Halimeda gracilis Chlorophyceae Ulva lactuca Chlorophyceae

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

Burgess, J. G., M. Elizabeth, M. Bregu, A. Meams-Sprugg, and K. G. Boyd. 1999 Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70. 27-32.

The ingredients used in perfume may improve your concentration and enhance your mood. There is a long list of scents that are said to trigger this stimulating effect. Perfumes that contain ingredients such as ginger, sandalwood and rose are claimed by aromatherapists and aromacologists alike to have a stimulating effect on brain neurons. The increased stimulation aided by the use of perfume assists in many everyday tasks, from more focused studying to extra stamina and energy, balanced weight loss to an improved immune system.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

Scientists have determined a marked difference in the pheromones between males and females. It has also been looked at as to why there are different pheromones for each gender.

The benefits of perfume are not just highlighted by scientific study. Many psychologists state that humans begin to store information about scents when only a few months old, and that scents affect reactions to people and events more than any of the other senses at this young age. In fact, our taste in smells remains more or less the same whereas tastes influenced by other senses are extremely changeable. This means that we choose perfumes for a reason, either it triggers a feeling of nostalgia or makes us feel a certain way. The perfume chosen also has a social relevance; it tells people something about the wearer, and helps cement their identity. Attraction to another person is influenced by invisible scents known as pheromones, and perfume adds to this. Above all, perfume makes the wearer feel fresh, attractive and more confident; and confidence is a definite benefit.

Colony morphology, Gram staining, Motility test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Indole Production, Methyl red test, Voges Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization test, Triple sugar Iron test, Nitrate reduction test, Lactose fermentation, Urease test

REFERENCES Alim, I., and K. Yuto. 2003. Mc21-A, a Bacteriocidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenotica sp. nov. O-Bc 30T, against Methicillin -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicro. Agents Chemoth. 47: 480 - 488.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

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Seaweeds itself secretes secondary metabolites to prevent fouling and grazing. In addition to that epibiotic bacteria on macro algae can also produce antifouling compounds that work in concert with the seaweed derived compounds to protect the seaweed surface. Recent studies have highlighted important roles of epibiotic bacteria colonizing the surface of seaweeds and releasing antifouling compounds. For the past 50 years antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing cures for formerly life threatening diseases. However, strains of bacteria have recently emerged that are virtually unresponsive to antibiotics such multidrug resistance, arising mainly through antibiotic misuse, is now recognized as a global health problem. In this situation, it is clear that new classes of antibiotics are urgently needed. Many marine bacteria have been shown to produce secondary metabolites that display antibacterial properties. The first antibiotic from a marine bacterium was identified and characterized in 1966. In addition, bacteria in biofilm on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a higher proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environments (Burgess, et al., 1999). Marine epibiotic bacteria, associated with nutrient-rich algal surfaces have also been shown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites which inhibit the settlement of potential competitors. Recently a lot new novel antibiotics such as Phenazine, thiomarinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 1-hydroxyphenazine 2-n-heptylquinol-4-one, 2-n-nonylquinol-4-one pyolipic, loloatins, agrochelin, sesbanimides, pelagiomicins, indomycione and indomycione have been identified from various marine epibiotic bacterial organisms. In particular, some species of the genus Pseudomonas produce both antibiotics and several other bioactive substances. For example, Pseudoalteromonas rubra and Pseudoalteromonas aurantia have been reported to be antibiotic producing bacteria. The phenomenon of higher organisms utilizing their associated microflora for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites is common in the marine environment (Yotsu, et al., 1987). A study of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% whereas that from sea water was only a few percent. In addition, some bacteria that previously did not produce any active compounds have been found to be producing such metabolites when they are exposed to other bacterial species or extra cellular chemical from other bacteria. Bacteria may also produce antimicrobial compounds when they sense the presence of competing organisms. However, few attempts have been made to study such chemical communication between different bacterial species or how this might affect. The secretion of antimicrobial compounds (Mearns-Spragg, et al., 1998). Bacterial communication by the chemical signals for specific function is simply known as Quorum sensing. In which a bacterial population receives input from the environment and elicits an appropriate response (Hiroaki and Kristina. 2003). The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and response to diffusible signal molecules. Bacterial cells sense their population density through a sophisticated cell to cell communication system and trigger expression of particular genes. Tne first system of density-dependent regulation was studied in detail with the luminescence of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) by Bassler et al., 1997. Eventually, they discovered that 3-oxo-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl) hexanamid or N-3-(oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL) was responsible the agent in the broth that induced luminescence. Followed by this many researchers have confirmed that in Gram negative bacteria acyl-homoserine lactone is responsible for the cell to cell communication system.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: QUORUM SENSING/CROSS SPECIES INDUCTION ANALYSIS In the present investigation totally 54 isolates were collected out of seaweed species. Among 54 isolates, 17 of them are producer strain, another 17 are the inducer strain rest of 20 isolates is normal and not showing any signs of activity (Table.2).

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:

In concluding this discussion, the quorum sensing is wider spread among bacterial population then was previously thought, (In Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial communication). Current assays for antimicrobial activities are inadequate because some antibiotic producing bacteria may require the presence of another bacterial species. These findings have important implication for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria and may allow the development of new methods for screening novel compounds active against multidrug resistant bacteria.

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 2 In this experiment, culture supernatant was obtained as per the procedure given in the experiment 1. 50ml of supernatant was mixed with equal volume of 80% methanol and 1% acetic acid mixture and it was shaked thoroughly in a separating funnel. Finally the methanol and acetic acid fractions were collected and concentrated by evaporation using water bath at 55??C. The viscous colloidal residues were resuspended in 600 microlitre of 50% methanol and it was used for antibacterial assay against different test organism.

"Does he like me?" is an age old question. If you weren't so busy being insecure you would know the answer in seconds. You can tell if a guy likes your girlfriends can't you?

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

With people wanting to learn more about the history of human pheromones, it has provided the necessary incentive for us to write this interesting article on the history of human pheromones!

Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne

As a result of this finding, perfume has become as much a science as it has an accessory. Aromatherapy studies the effects of natural botanical perfume ingredients, usually in the form of oils in their purest state. Its looks at the effects upon mood and general well being, and applies the knowledge by improving the perfume in the environment and offering a variety of aromatherapy services aimed at improving people`s lives. Aromacology applies this same approach to any available scent, from flowers to sand, and the findings are currently assisting perfume manufacturers worldwide.

Makers of synthetic human pheromones believe that they are very important in sexual attraction. In fact, these manufacturers sell these synthetic pheromones on the basis that they will help a person attract someone of the opposite sex. These synthetic hormones are used as a perfume or added to a perfume.

When launching a campaign to catch a man's attention, take extra care with your appearance. If you are miss nature girl, try adding just a bit of make up to freshen your appearance.

If you want to attract a man you must take control of the signals that you put out. If you are going to a cafe that your guy frequents, leave your books, computer and book bags at home. You don't want to inadvertently place anything in his path. Or send out the signal buzz off I'm busy.

Is he unable to keep himself from touching you? Hand on the arm or the small of your back? Can you talk for hours? Does he stay on the phone for longer than ten minutes?

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

In culture system B 200ul of 16 hours old producer strain alone was inoculated. In culture system C 200ul of 16 hours old inducer strain alone was inoculated.

Has he casually brought up a movie that just happens to be playing? These are just a few signs when a man likes you. Now just because a man likes you doesn't mean that you have to date him. Don't make the mistake of dating a man just because he is there. Not every guy is right for you, even if all of your friends think he is "so cute" or you haven't had a date since Ben and Jerry's was invented.

Hypnea valentiae Rhodophyceae Hypnea pannose Rhodophyceae Hypnea esperi Rhodophyceae Acanthophora spicifera Rhodophyceae ISOLATION OF EPIPHYTIC BACTERIA

Evelyn, A., Y. Liming, K.G. Boyd, P. C. Wright, and J. G. Burgess. 2001. The symbiotic role of marine microbes on living surfaces. Hydrobiologia. 461: 37 - 40

Miller, M. B., and B. L. Bassler. 2001. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 165-199. Msadek, T. 1999. When the going gets tough: survival strategies and environmental signaling network in Bacillus subtilis. Trends Microbiol. 7: 201-207.

It is all a matter of personal experience, really, because science still seems to be at odds with itself over conclusive proof. The most important thing is if you can prove it to yourself that there is a link between human pheromones and sexual attraction.

Learn how to tell if a man likes you, yes, but use your gut instincts to tell if you should go out with him. How to Make a Man Interested in You Men are like snowflakes. No two are exactly alike. So answering this question is not as easy as it seems. There are specific things that you can absolutely do to raise a man's interest. But if he likes curvy blonds who love to sky dive and you are a five foot two stick who can't stand heights and has no intention of getting a boob job then getting his attention may not be in your best interest.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

Burgess, J. G., E. M. Jordan, M. Bregu, and A. Mearns-spragg. 1999. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70: 27-32.

In this experiment among 17 Producer and Inducer strains only 3 of them have responded to the quorum sensing principle. (BrB+/BrB-), (GcC+/GcC) and (SA+/SA-)

In gram positive bacteria peptide and derivative peptide based signaling molecules seem to be the predominant mode of communication. During high cell density the marine bacteria can produce enzymes, surfactants, toxins, and antibiotics by the chemical signal communication. Marine epibiotic bacteria are also known to produce compounds active against drug resistant hospital pathogen by the cross species induction method. Building on assays described by Austin (Billaud and Austin 1990) a screening procedure has been developed in which marine bacteria are challenged by exposing them to terrestrial bacteria prior to assay of antimicrobial compounds. Hence in this present investigation it is proposed to find out the ability of sea weed epibiotic bacterial organism to produce antibacterial compounds through quorum sensing.

The results of Vanderivere and Kirchman 1993 suggest that the addition of increased surface by adding sand will induce the exopolymer synthesis through the high cell density dependent system. In the same way the bacterial organisms attached to the surface of seaweed shows alteration of genes expression may be due to the response to the high competitive environment. When cell density increases the competition for space and nutrients are also increased. So the existing bacteria were forced to protect themselves in this competitive environment. Normally in this condition the bacteria will be activated to induce the expression of certain hidden genes in genetic material through quorum sensing. The quorum sensing is principles were active compounds (autoinducer) from bacterial cell will promote the expression of a particular hidden gene of other bacterial organism in a stressed condition.

How to Make a Man Interested in You with Scents Dab an alluring scent on. I do mean dab it. Add a hint behind your ears. A bit on the pulse points of your neck, wrists and behind the knee. Pheromones touched beneath your nostrils can also be a powerful seduction tool. They are odorless and will have his gaze drifting in your direction.

The test organisms Vibrio species were isolated from seaweed as epiphyles, biofilm, sediment and puffer fish by using TCBS medium (Hi media) The pathogenic bacteria were collected from clinical laboratories.

Another benefit to be gained from wearing perfume is that it can relax your mood. Certain scents have aldehydes which have a calming effect on the brain. The perfume oils which have this effect include eucalyptus and citronella. Other scents can act as a form of sedative, aiding restful sleep, which helps reduce anxiety and tension which in turn creates a wealth of health benefits. The most famous of these perfumes include lavender and bergamot, which have been used for this purpose for centuries and in a variety of countries worldwide.

Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

Click on the link at the end of this article to find out more about pheromones.

How to Make a Man Interested in You with Mental Stimulation

What is your guy interested in? Does he wear a particular sport's jersey? Does the mention of his car, boat, motorcycle have him writing sonnets? Does the site of a fishing pole bring tears to his eyes? Show an interest in his passions and he just may show an interest in you. While other women's eyes may glaze over yours will sparkle with interest. A woman who actually listens to him and has a real interest? How could he not find you more attractive? Do some research, find a way to make it exciting. Truly share his enthusiasm

Writing about the history of human pheromones has led us to learn unknown things about the history of human pheromones. This is the main reason for us to write this article; to make it fruitful to you!
Author Dave Thomson

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Do you know the show Brainiac? It s a show in the UK that basically puts to the test everyday science stuff like testing how far a shopping cart will go if a tank of CO2 is attached to it. Hilarious! Anyway, what caught my attention was this test they did on pheromones, a known aphrodisiac scent. The test included a very sexy woman who was blindfolded. She then had to smell three men and...

If you ve never heard of pheromones it is time to learn about the part they play in your sex life. The concept of a human pheromone, or sexual scent of attraction, has been debated and researched for years. Using a brain imaging technique, Swedish researchers have shown that homosexual and heterosexual men respond differently to two odors that may be involved in sexual arousal, and that the...

Pheromones act as a form of chemical communication between human beings. These chemicals are well known for their ability to attract members of the opposite sex. There are four common types of human pheromones: Androstenone, or A-None is found in both men and women, however, it is usually known of as a male pheromone because it creates a dominant and aggressive aura and projects an...

Technically speaking, a pheromone is an odorous chemical produced by an animal that affects the behavior of another animal. Some of the many behaviors affected by animal pheromones include, attracting or finding a mate, reproduction cycles, marking territory, warning of danger, and showing the way to food. Because pheromones can be influential on other living being they are probably one of the...

Many different pheromones products are now available on the market. Pheromone products come in all shapes and sizes. For example, you have an option to buy pheromone colognes, pheromone oils, pheromone perfumes, or pheromone concentrates. Also, pheromone products are available in either unscented or scented versions. Of course, men and women use different types of pheromone products - but there...

Women are often too indirect when revealing their romantic interest and often send mixed signals. Most of the signals women send is through body language - which means you are not going to find out if she s interested from words alone. Here are a few signs that should tell you that she is interested: -She points in your direction with her leg or foot. -She leans toward you while talking....

Tongat Ali is an herbal supplement that is used as a sexual stimulant. Never heard of it? Don t feel bad you are in good company; it is still not widely known about. Tongat Ali, like yohimbine is a plant based sexual stimulant and like the Yohimbe plant the Tongat Ali is becoming hard to find especially since it is now protected from harvest by law in Malaysia which is the original source of...

If you have ever wondered what are pheromones you are probably not alone. In fact, there have been many people who have wondered what pheromones are, and a lot of research has been done on the topic. In the quest to find out what pheromones are, people have done research in the human world as well as the animal kingdom. This is because pheromones occur and do their work in both animal...

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