How To Buy Human Pheromones 

Discussions on the possibilities of buying human pheromones have been a subject of many discussions in the past along with the issues of cloning and other forms of substitution of human body parts.

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.

Seaweeds itself secretes secondary metabolites to prevent fouling and grazing. In addition to that epibiotic bacteria on macro algae can also produce antifouling compounds that work in concert with the seaweed derived compounds to protect the seaweed surface. Recent studies have highlighted important roles of epibiotic bacteria colonizing the surface of seaweeds and releasing antifouling compounds. For the past 50 years antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing cures for formerly life threatening diseases. However, strains of bacteria have recently emerged that are virtually unresponsive to antibiotics such multidrug resistance, arising mainly through antibiotic misuse, is now recognized as a global health problem. In this situation, it is clear that new classes of antibiotics are urgently needed. Many marine bacteria have been shown to produce secondary metabolites that display antibacterial properties. The first antibiotic from a marine bacterium was identified and characterized in 1966. In addition, bacteria in biofilm on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a higher proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environments (Burgess, et al., 1999). Marine epibiotic bacteria, associated with nutrient-rich algal surfaces have also been shown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites which inhibit the settlement of potential competitors. Recently a lot new novel antibiotics such as Phenazine, thiomarinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 1-hydroxyphenazine 2-n-heptylquinol-4-one, 2-n-nonylquinol-4-one pyolipic, loloatins, agrochelin, sesbanimides, pelagiomicins, indomycione and indomycione have been identified from various marine epibiotic bacterial organisms. In particular, some species of the genus Pseudomonas produce both antibiotics and several other bioactive substances. For example, Pseudoalteromonas rubra and Pseudoalteromonas aurantia have been reported to be antibiotic producing bacteria. The phenomenon of higher organisms utilizing their associated microflora for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites is common in the marine environment (Yotsu, et al., 1987). A study of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% whereas that from sea water was only a few percent. In addition, some bacteria that previously did not produce any active compounds have been found to be producing such metabolites when they are exposed to other bacterial species or extra cellular chemical from other bacteria. Bacteria may also produce antimicrobial compounds when they sense the presence of competing organisms. However, few attempts have been made to study such chemical communication between different bacterial species or how this might affect. The secretion of antimicrobial compounds (Mearns-Spragg, et al., 1998). Bacterial communication by the chemical signals for specific function is simply known as Quorum sensing. In which a bacterial population receives input from the environment and elicits an appropriate response (Hiroaki and Kristina. 2003). The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and response to diffusible signal molecules. Bacterial cells sense their population density through a sophisticated cell to cell communication system and trigger expression of particular genes. Tne first system of density-dependent regulation was studied in detail with the luminescence of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) by Bassler et al., 1997. Eventually, they discovered that 3-oxo-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl) hexanamid or N-3-(oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL) was responsible the agent in the broth that induced luminescence. Followed by this many researchers have confirmed that in Gram negative bacteria acyl-homoserine lactone is responsible for the cell to cell communication system.

The best way of gaining knowledge about pheromone work is by reading as much about it as possible. This can be best done through the Internet.

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

Burgess, J. G., H. Miyashita, H. Sudo, and T. Matsunaga.1991. Antibiotic production by marine photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium purpuratum NKPB 031704: Localization of activity to the chromatophores. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 84: 301 - 306.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

Trischman, J.A., D.M.Tapiolas, P.R.Jensen, R.Dwight, W.Fenical, T.C.Mckee, C.M.Ireland, T.J.Stout, J.CIarely. 1994. Salinamide - A and salinamide - B - anti -inflammatory depsipeptides from a marine streptomycete. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 116: 757 -758.

Compliments are a simple but effective way to make a woman you are interested in feel special. However, most men don't know how to give good compliments. Here are just a few basic tips:

Colony morphology, Gram staining, Motility test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Indole Production, Methyl red test, Voges Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization test, Triple sugar Iron test, Nitrate reduction test, Lactose fermentation, Urease test

Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 2 In this experiment, culture supernatant was obtained as per the procedure given in the experiment 1. 50ml of supernatant was mixed with equal volume of 80% methanol and 1% acetic acid mixture and it was shaked thoroughly in a separating funnel. Finally the methanol and acetic acid fractions were collected and concentrated by evaporation using water bath at 55??C. The viscous colloidal residues were resuspended in 600 microlitre of 50% methanol and it was used for antibacterial assay against different test organism.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

*Corresponding author e-mail: vijay10bas@yahoo.co.in INTRODUCTION We are living in a microbial planet. About 71 % of the surface of this planet is covered by sea water. A typical milliliter of seawater contains 103 fungal cells, 106 bacteria, and 107 viruses, including pathogens that cause widespread mortalities and microbes that initiate fouling of host surfaces (Rheinheimer, 1992). Thus, marine plants and animals are continually exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful microbes. These microorganisms in nature exists as free living planktonic mode of life in sea water or it may exist as epibiotic organisms in various living and nonliving surfaces. Among living organisms, seaweeds and invertebrates act as suitable substrate for the establishment of epibiotic organisms Seaweeds are known to release a large amount of organic carbon into the surrounding environment providing a nutrient rich habitat for microorganisms like bacteria. Bacteria are generally considered to be independent unicellular organisms. One cell accomplishes all of the tasks of feeding, locomotion, 'reproduction, respiration and all other processes necessary to keep an organism alive. There are several classes of bacteria such as primary film forming bacteria, sediment bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, and epibiotic bacteria in various aquatic organisms. The marine surface environment is a site of intense composition for living space by a wide variety of organisms. Bacteria are generally recognized as primary colonizers of this habitat and are able to form biofilm on marine surface such as invertebrates and algae (Bryers, et al., 1982). Bacteria may also be abundant on the surfaces of some algae as an important epibiotic organism. In many cases, the bacterial population found to be specific, with changes occurring throughout the year or life span of the algal surface. This algal-bacterial relationship is symbiotic in most cases; the epibiotic bacteria in seaweed play a protective role by releasing secondary metabolites into the surrounding seawater that help preventing extensive fouling of the surface. Epibiotic bacteria are therefore attracting attention as a source of new natural products. Bacteria from the larvae of some crustaceans protect them from fungal infection by the production of simple antimicrobial compounds. Bacteria isolated from the surface of a tunicate prevented the settlement of barnacle and tunicate larvae exposed to the bacteria as biofilm in petridishes (Evelyn et al., 2001).

All the cultures were incubated at 28??C for 5 days. After the incubation period the cultures were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15mins. The supernatant was collected and subjected to antibacterial assay with respective inducer strain.

Microdictyon tenunis Chlorophyceae Chondrococcus hornemonii Chlorophyceae Enteromorpha intestinalis Chlorophyceae Caulerpa cupressoides Chlorophyceae

Bassler, B. L., E. P. Greenberg, and A. M. Sterens. 1997. Cross species induction of luminescence in the quorum - sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. J. Bacteriology. 179: 4043-4045.

In culture system B 200ul of 16 hours old producer strain alone was inoculated. In culture system C 200ul of 16 hours old inducer strain alone was inoculated.

Note that according to studies in the areas of human pheromones, the mother and infant communicate with one other in such a way that they are able to convey certain types of messages without the use of words. Infants instinctively recognize their mothers by simply relying on the scents, textures and smells that the mother emits.

CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

b) Among these 17-inducer strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis, 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from sediment.

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

Holmstrom, C, and S. Kjelleberg. 1994. The effect of external biological factors on, settlement of marine invertebrates and new antifouling technologies. Biofouling. 8: 147-160.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

The best way of gaining knowledge about pheromone work is by reading as much about it as possible. This can be best done through the Internet.

Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

Burgess, J. G., E. M. Jordan, M. Bregu, and A. Mearns-spragg. 1999. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70: 27-32.

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

The test organisms Vibrio species were isolated from seaweed as epiphyles, biofilm, sediment and puffer fish by using TCBS medium (Hi media) The pathogenic bacteria were collected from clinical laboratories.

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

GcA-, GcB-, GcC-, GcD- GcE-, GcF- Gracillaria edulis U1-, U2-, U3-, U4- Ulva lactuca SA- Sediment

illaud, A. C, and B. Austin. 1990. Inhibition of the fish pathogen, Serratia liquefaciens by an antibiotic producing isolates of planococcus recovered from sea water. Journal of

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

Br B+ /Br B- Br C+/Br C- Br D+/Br D- Br E+/Br E- Br F+/Br F- BrA- Br B- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- NIL 39

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Allison, D. G., B. Ruiz, C. Sanjose, A. Jaspe, and P.Gilbert. 1998. Extracellular products as mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. FEMS Microbial Lett. 167: 179-184.

According to some surveys, about 50% of adult humans can't detect androstenone, unless the concentration is extremely high. Those who can detect androstenone say that its smell is not very pleasant. Androstenone is the main pheromone that men unknowingly secrete that attract women. Both men and women secrete pheromones when they sweat. However, since our body naturally only secretes small amounts of pheromones, they are effective for only a brief amount of time. The good news is that scientists have succeeded in identifying and synthesizing both androstenone and androstenol in the laboratory.

Try to give a unique compliment about a certain characteristic that most people overlook. For example, never tell her how beautiful she is, because everyone has said that to her. Compliment a woman for her intelligence. Also, consider commenting on actions instead on looks. Even an extremely gorgeous woman will love being complimented on more than just her appearance.

TEST ORGANISMS: 1. Epiphytic Vibrio from seaweeds 2. Vibrio from primary film 3. Vibrio from Sediments 4. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Proteus sp

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

Although there are many people that are thrilled with the idea that they can buy human pheromones, there are also many who do not like even the mere thought of purchasing human pheromones to attract their mates. A lot of people believe that human relationships should come naturally and it is wrong for science to tamper with the natural flow of human relationships. It is their belief that it is wrong to buy human pheromones and that tampering with the natural flow of things could cause problems.

Some men produce more natural pheromones than others, which is why you can see some men who are not handsome, but have no problems in attracting and seducing the most beautiful women.

A. Live cells of producer and inducer strains B. Live cells of producer strain alone C. Live cells of inducer strain alone In culture system A 200ul of 16 hours old broth culture of both producer and inducer strains were added to the 15 ml of nutrient broth.

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Androstenol, which appears in fresh sweat, is disintegrated by bacteria in about 15 to 20 minutes. This pheromone, which reported by women to be sweet-smelling, is also called the "pillow-talk pheromone", because women are exposed to it immediately after love making during the cuddling phase.

In the case of opposite sex attraction, human pheromones are said to facilitate the bonding of two people. According to some researchers, the human pheromones play an active role in giving out sexual messages. In fact, according to some, the pheromones can be so closely associated with reproduction in almost all species that it is but normal that human beings also emit this type of chemicals to attract their mate. Given this explanations on the human pheromones, a lot of people are turning to buying human pheromones to enhance their sexual desirability.

Evelyn, A., Y. Liming, K.G. Boyd, P. C. Wright, and J. G. Burgess. 2001. The symbiotic role of marine microbes on living surfaces. Hydrobiologia. 461: 37 - 40

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

Dictyota batryensis Phaeophyceae Sargassum sps Phaeophyceae Hypnea musciformis Rhodophyceae Acanthophora dendroides Rhodophyceae Jania rubens Rhodophyceae

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

Give compliments that you sincerely believe to be true. Keep the compliments short and sweet. Speak in a friendly voice and don't sound boring. Make eye contact and smile. Make sure your smile is not a fake smile - just relax your face and you'll have a natural warm smile.

We had never known how interesting writing about pheromone work would be, until we got to write this article. Hope you felt the same too.
Author Dave Thomson

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