11/19/2019

How Perfumes Make you Sexy 

This article seeks to give you a solid knowledge base regarding the subject matter at hand, no matter what your previous experience on the topic. What draws you to the contrary sex?


U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

TEST ORGANISMS: 1. Epiphytic Vibrio from seaweeds 2. Vibrio from primary film 3. Vibrio from Sediments 4. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Proteus sp
 




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property they have in everyday? A unique connection? Or is it the way they smell to each other? Actually, the way you smell acting an important part in the mating contest. It is proper in the animal world. Like it or not, it is also proper among people.

Br B+ /Br B- Br C+/Br C- Br D+/Br D- Br E+/Br E- Br F+/Br F- BrA- Br B- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- NIL 39

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

Among insects, a starving cockroach on the edge of vanishing from famine would instead survey the follow of pheromones with the trust of mating, instead than go for the food that would keep his life.

Hypnea valentiae Rhodophyceae Hypnea pannose Rhodophyceae Hypnea esperi Rhodophyceae Acanthophora spicifera Rhodophyceae ISOLATION OF EPIPHYTIC BACTERIA

In concluding this discussion, the quorum sensing is wider spread among bacterial population then was previously thought, (In Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial communication). Current assays for antimicrobial activities are inadequate because some antibiotic producing bacteria may require the presence of another bacterial species. These findings have important implication for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria and may allow the development of new methods for screening novel compounds active against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

Hiroaki, S., and K. M. Smith. 2003. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial quorum sensing as a new drug target. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7: 586-591. Hoang, T., Y. Ma, R. J. Stern, M. R. Meneil, and H. P. Schwezer. 1999. Construction and use of low-copy number T7 expression vectors for purification of problem proteins: purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RmID and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lasl and Rhll proteins, and functional analysis of purified Rhll. Gene. 237: 361 - 371.

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each has a million apocrine glands whose sole event is to products a smell. These only become active winning teens. leading sexual wisdom. A sex trail, if you will.

In gram positive bacteria peptide and derivative peptide based signaling molecules seem to be the predominant mode of communication. During high cell density the marine bacteria can produce enzymes, surfactants, toxins, and antibiotics by the chemical signal communication. Marine epibiotic bacteria are also known to produce compounds active against drug resistant hospital pathogen by the cross species induction method. Building on assays described by Austin (Billaud and Austin 1990) a screening procedure has been developed in which marine bacteria are challenged by exposing them to terrestrial bacteria prior to assay of antimicrobial compounds. Hence in this present investigation it is proposed to find out the ability of sea weed epibiotic bacterial organism to produce antibacterial compounds through quorum sensing.

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

Perfumes are regularly worn like pheromones, for that aphrodisiac produce. Look at all the imbue ads. They commonly heart around romance, or seduction.

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

Ever heard about pheromones? That is the stealthy of sexual drawion. In the animal world, pheromones draw affiliate the contrary sex irresistably when the animal is in reheat. Think about the fechap cat who draws chap cats in droves, who attack over her when she is in reheat.

The test organisms Vibrio species were isolated from seaweed as epiphyles, biofilm, sediment and puffer fish by using TCBS medium (Hi media) The pathogenic bacteria were collected from clinical laboratories.

Table 1. List of Seaweeds species collected for the present study SPECIES NAME FAMILY Halimeda gracilis Chlorophyceae Ulva lactuca Chlorophyceae

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

Mckenney, D., K. E. Brown, and D. G. Allison. 1995. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproducts on virulence factor production in Burkholderia cepacia: evidence of interspecies communication. J. Bacterial 177: 6989 - 6992.

Dictyota batryensis Phaeophyceae Sargassum sps Phaeophyceae Hypnea musciformis Rhodophyceae Acanthophora dendroides Rhodophyceae Jania rubens Rhodophyceae

Many different pheromones products are now available on the market. Pheromone products come in all shapes and sizes. For example, you have an option to buy pheromone colognes, pheromone oils, pheromone perfumes, or pheromone concentrates. Also, pheromone products are available in either unscented or scented versions. Of course, men and women use different types of pheromone products - but there are some unisex pheromone colognes, too. Androstenone and androsterone-based products attract women, while copulins attract men.

Ylang ylang has a resilient, femalely trail. Ylang ylang can be overpowering but when worn lightly or in blends, it is said to put one in a romantic mood. Ylang ylang imbues are epitome for that romantic night out.

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Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



So, where to start? Use one product and pay attention to the reactions of men or women around you. Then try another pheromone product. The key with testing a product is to be persistent and to test in different situations. You cannot just apply pheromones then sit back and wait. Don't be discouraged if you don't see results immediately. Remember that everybody has unique body chemistry. Try different dosage or a different mix of two or more pheromone colognes. Testing is the best way to find out what works for you. And it's not expensive - there are a lot of free pheromone samples available - and pheromone kits for beginners as well.

GcD- GcE- GcF- NIL NIL 26 NIL NIL NIL Ulva lactuca 13. U1+ 14: U2+ 15. U3+ 16. U4+ U1-

Did you know that in certain parts of the world, during village dances, daughters would control slices of apple in their armpits while they dance. Then, they would proffer the sweat sopping apples to the guys they confeaturer.

In culture system B 200ul of 16 hours old producer strain alone was inoculated. In culture system C 200ul of 16 hours old inducer strain alone was inoculated.

Burgess, J. G., E. M. Jordan, M. Bregu, and A. Mearns-spragg. 1999. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70: 27-32.

If you could travel through time, what mistake would you correct in your life? What do you do for fun? Where do you see yourself in 5 years?

Allison, D. G., B. Ruiz, C. Sanjose, A. Jaspe, and P.Gilbert. 1998. Extracellular products as mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. FEMS Microbial Lett. 167: 179-184.

Based on popularity and effectiveness, some of the best pheromone products include: Chikara, Alter Ego, Scent of Eros, Rogue Male, Pheromax, Realm, The Edge, Passion Pheromone Attractant, Perception, New Pheromone Additive - NPA and Primal Instinct. These products contain different amounts of pheromones. Most pheromones can be combined with others. For example, Scent of Eros can be combined with androstenone products - Primal Instinct or The Edge.

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

Jasmine, patchouli, sandalwood, rose, ylang ylang and a number of other aromatherapy oils worn in imbuery are known for their aphrodisiac properties.

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Evelyn, A., Y. Liming, K.G. Boyd, P. C. Wright, and J. G. Burgess. 2001. The symbiotic role of marine microbes on living surfaces. Hydrobiologia. 461: 37 - 40

The complexities of the subject matter within this article strive to give you a better look at what this subject is all about.

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

GcA-, GcB-, GcC-, GcD- GcE-, GcF- Gracillaria edulis U1-, U2-, U3-, U4- Ulva lactuca SA- Sediment

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

In this experiment among 17 Producer and Inducer strains only 3 of them have responded to the quorum sensing principle. (BrB+/BrB-), (GcC+/GcC) and (SA+/SA-)

Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

The collected seaweed samples were thoroughly washed with sterile seawater to removes the loosely attached bacteria/particles. Seaweed fronds were scrubbed with sterile cotton swabs to obtain epiphytic bacteria. Epiphytic bacterial organism in the swab were inoculated in sterile peptone broth (50% sea water) and incubated at 28??C in an incubated shaker (220 rpm / min) for overnight. After the incubation period the enriched cultures were serially diluted up to 10-8 concentration and 200 microlitre of each diluted samples were transferred into the nutrient agar plate (50% sea water). The plates were incubated at 28??C for 5 days and the plates with crowded colonies were selected. In the crowded plates those colonies, which showed the sign of inhibition zone around its margin to the neighboring colony, were selected and considered as producer strain. The neighboring sensitive colonies were treated as inducer strain. Both producer and inducer strains were streaked repeatedly until to get pure culture. The pure culture were properly labeled and subjected to the quorum sensing analysis.

Jasmine imbue has a very bodily perfume. Jasmine necessary oil itself exerts an produce on a fechap hormones. It is worn in aromatherapy to consider hormones and to boost confidence. Jasmine is admired in imbues as it has a resilient erogenous produce on people.

We suggest that the above said mechanisms in Pseudomonas with quorum sensing principle might have occurred in the present study also. This induces the bacteria Pseudomonas in epibiotic seaweeds to secrete certain active compound against to the competitor Vibrio species.

Perfumes as we know them were first worn by Egyptians to protect the deadly bodies of mummies. Later, imbues were worn before sex. To get both parties in a more romantic mood.

Wagner, V. E., D. Bushneil, and L. Passador. 2003. Micro array analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing regulons. J. Bacteriol, 185: 2080 - 2095.

ANTIBIOTIC ASSAYS Antibiotic activity was performed in duplicate using a standard paper disc diffusion method as well as well assay. In well assay 10mm in diameter wells were made in marine agar plates and the plates were swabbed with 16 hours old inducer strain. To these wells 200ul of cell free supernatant were added to each well. In paper disc assay the Watmann no.1 filter paper discs (6mm in diameter) were saturated with 200ul of cell free supernatant. The impregnant discs were Dlaced in the centre of the plates swabbed with test organisms. The plates were Incubated at 37??C overnight and observed for inhibition zone. The zone of inhibition was measured as the distance from the border of paper disc to the edge of the clear zone and expressed in mm.

Lemos, M. L, A. E. Toranzod, and L. J. Barja. 1986. Antibiotic activity of epiphytic bacteria isolated from intertidal seaweeds. Microbial Ecology. 11: 149-163.

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

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MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:

Miller, M. B., and B. L. Bassler. 2001. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 165-199. Msadek, T. 1999. When the going gets tough: survival strategies and environmental signaling network in Bacillus subtilis. Trends Microbiol. 7: 201-207.

If you had three wishes, what would they be? If you were an animal, what would you be? If you had only six months to live, what would you do first?

What makes a guy and a daughter plunge in adoration? Is it the way they look? We have had a lot of fun during the first portion of this article and hopefully you feel as though you have a firm grasp on the topic.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

It is important that you trust your gut instinct. Asking the right questions combined with your intuition will definitely help you find the man or woman of your dreams.

GcC- GcD- GcE- GcF- Gc A+/GcA- Gc B+/GcB- Gc C+/GcC- Gc D+/GcD- Gc E+ /GcE- Gc F+/GcF- GcA- GcB- GcC-

Microdictyon tenunis Chlorophyceae Chondrococcus hornemonii Chlorophyceae Enteromorpha intestinalis Chlorophyceae Caulerpa cupressoides Chlorophyceae

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illaud, A. C, and B. Austin. 1990. Inhibition of the fish pathogen, Serratia liquefaciens by an antibiotic producing isolates of planococcus recovered from sea water. Journal of


Zhang, L., P. J. Murphy, and A. Kerr. 1993. Agrobacterium conjugation and gene regulation by /V-acyl-L-homoserine lactones. Nature 362: 446 - 448.



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To become a good conversationalist, you need to become interesting. And to become interesting, you need to experience many different things so that you will have different, unique experiences to talk about. Once you have unique experiences to talk about, you will find it much easier to start a conversation. One way you can do this is to go traveling. I know it can be super expensive...

If you ve never heard of pheromones it is time to learn about the part they play in your sex life. The concept of a human pheromone, or sexual scent of attraction, has been debated and researched for years. Using a brain imaging technique, Swedish researchers have shown that homosexual and heterosexual men respond differently to two odors that may be involved in sexual arousal, and that the...

The discovery of pheromones in 1959 led to several developments in the areas of relationships and behaviors. Pheromones were originally associated with the chemical substances that animals usually excrete to send a message to their own species. Further research on the topic widened the definition of the word pheromones to include other species such as human beings. In fact, pheromones in humans...

Perfumes and special scents are often the first things that will be noticed when people walk into the room, so it s best to make sure you are wearing the perfume that best reflects the kind of attention your wanting, e.g. a light scent for an interview or a more powerful one on a romantic date. There are various ways to select the right perfume for yourself. Knowing how your tastes and styles...

Is there a difference between pheromone perfume and cologne? What should you consider when shopping for human pheromone products? There really isn t any difference at all. Cologne is generally targeted towards men while perfume is basically a woman s product. It s simply marketing as women would identify much more with pheromone perfume. Spray and concentrate products then complete the...

The art of seduction is a topic which has been studied since ancient times, the attraction between man and woman (etc.!) seems to drive people regardless of their intellectual state. Societies and even empires have been ruled by desire a clear example was Babylon which as we all know was famous for their, shall we say sexy parties . If we think hard about it, man is driven by emotions and...

Every creature on this planet gives off attraction signals. We are no exception. Some are blatant and some are unconscious. We are all born with the ability to physically attract others. Some of us have just cultivated this gift. Attracting and seducing men is not as difficult as many of us make it out to be. As women, we naturally send out signals. The key is to know when to send them out and...

If you have ever wondered what are pheromones you are probably not alone. In fact, there have been many people who have wondered what pheromones are, and a lot of research has been done on the topic. In the quest to find out what pheromones are, people have done research in the human world as well as the animal kingdom. This is because pheromones occur and do their work in both animal...





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