9/15/2019

Conversation Starters: Go Have an Adventure 

To become a good conversationalist, you need to become interesting. And to become interesting, you need to experience many different things so that you will have different, unique experiences to talk about.


Rheinheimer, G.1992.Aquatic microbiology (Wiley, New York), 3rd Ed. Stead, P., B. A. M. Rudd, H. Bradshaw, D. Nobel, and M. J. Dawson. 1996. Induction of phenazine biosynthesis in cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa by L-N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone. FEMS Microbiology Letters 140: 15-22.
 




It was with great optimism that we started out on writing this composition on pheromone testimonials. Please don't let us lose this optimism.

Mckenney, D., K. E. Brown, and D. G. Allison. 1995. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproducts on virulence factor production in Burkholderia cepacia: evidence of interspecies communication. J. Bacterial 177: 6989 - 6992.

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

Having dinner can be a great way to break the ice, and you can choose a restaurant to meet at that won't break the bank, but will make a good first impression with your online dating match.

Wagner, V. E., D. Bushneil, and L. Passador. 2003. Micro array analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing regulons. J. Bacteriol, 185: 2080 - 2095.

We suggest that the above said mechanisms in Pseudomonas with quorum sensing principle might have occurred in the present study also. This induces the bacteria Pseudomonas in epibiotic seaweeds to secrete certain active compound against to the competitor Vibrio species.

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

I know it can be super expensive and it might not fit into your schedule, but you'll grow as a person and expand your conversational repertoire because of it.

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Before you and potential partner decide to meet up and introduce yourself face to face, consider the best options you have to mapping out your first date and overcoming the jitters that lie ahead.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

All the cultures were incubated at 28??C for 5 days. After the incubation period the cultures were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15mins. The supernatant was collected and subjected to antibacterial assay with respective inducer strain.

Take a minute to brainstorm ideas right now. Any type of traveling will work - just try and turn it into an adventure. I'm sure you won't find it too hard to come up with something that could be an adventure.

illaud, A. C, and B. Austin. 1990. Inhibition of the fish pathogen, Serratia liquefaciens by an antibiotic producing isolates of planococcus recovered from sea water. Journal of

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

Vandevivere, P., and D. L. Kirchman.1993. Attachment stimulates exopolysaccharide synthesis by a bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 3280-3286.

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

So the question still is… do they work? Well, if research is anything to go by then yes they do. How effective is a pheromone-based spray? I'm not too sure however, it's been suggested that just wearing it will give a person a greater air of confidence, hence, as with approaching anything in life, going in with confidence can attract the most positive results.

Girls love adventure, fun and spontaneity. And if you go (or have gone on a few adventures), then they think that you could be fun, exciting, and spontaneous.

Human pheromone products have gradually become a part of the fragrance landscape during the past few years with more and more people using them as part of their make up. But the question is continually asked… do they work? And to take it a step further… can they be used effectively in the business world?

The earlier genetic analysis in Pseudomonas reveals the Pseudomonas consist of two quorum sensing systems as Las R1-I and Rh1R-l and have linked with R and I genes, in addition recently a third Lux R homolog that is advanced to a cluster of quorum sensing - controlled (qsc) genes were detected. Las R is a transcriptional regulator that responses primarily to the Las I - generated signal and Rh1R is a transcriptional regularly that responses best to the Rhl -generated signal. In Pseudomonas auriginosa, at low population densities Las I produce a basel level of 3-O-C12-HSL. As density increases, 3-0-C12-HSL builds to a critical concentration, at which point interacts with LasR. This Las R -3-0-012-HSL complex that activates transcription of a number of genes [Whileley, et al., 1999].

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Believe it or not, there are many matches made on Internet dating sites where the pair want to live life to its fullest, sparing no expense - even for their first date! If this fits you perfectly, why not plan a trip to Paris or another part of the world?

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION The organisms responded to the quorum sensing process alone were identified by the following biochemical analysis.

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

Studies seem to prove conclusively that odorless compounds have a certain effect on human bevaviour. You've only got to do a search for Dr. Winifred Cutler online who has led the way in human pheromone research during the past three decades to realise this is not a subject where claims are baseless. Amazingly, it's also being suggested that pheromones are gender specific; that is only a human pheromone can generate a human response and even more enlightning; heterosexual to heterosexual and homosexual to homosexual. Is it possible?

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

Creativity always delivers a good first impression. If both of you are on a budget, and going Dutch, then you may want to take a fairly frugal approach. That could mean spending your day on a picnic at the park, having a nice walk along the beach, or even inviting the other person over for a home cooked meal.

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Hypnea valentiae Rhodophyceae Hypnea pannose Rhodophyceae Hypnea esperi Rhodophyceae Acanthophora spicifera Rhodophyceae ISOLATION OF EPIPHYTIC BACTERIA

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

Dekievit, T. R., and B. H. Iglewski. 2000. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infect. Immun. 66: 4839-4849. Dimango, E., H. J. Zar, R. Bryan, and A. Prince. 1995. Diverse Pseudomonas aerugniosa gene products stimulate respiratory epithelial cells to produce interleukin-8. J. Clin-lnvestig. 96: 2204-2210.

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

It was with great optimism that we started out on writing this composition on pheromone testimonials. Please don't let us lose this optimism.



Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

The collected seaweed samples were thoroughly washed with sterile seawater to removes the loosely attached bacteria/particles. Seaweed fronds were scrubbed with sterile cotton swabs to obtain epiphytic bacteria. Epiphytic bacterial organism in the swab were inoculated in sterile peptone broth (50% sea water) and incubated at 28??C in an incubated shaker (220 rpm / min) for overnight. After the incubation period the enriched cultures were serially diluted up to 10-8 concentration and 200 microlitre of each diluted samples were transferred into the nutrient agar plate (50% sea water). The plates were incubated at 28??C for 5 days and the plates with crowded colonies were selected. In the crowded plates those colonies, which showed the sign of inhibition zone around its margin to the neighboring colony, were selected and considered as producer strain. The neighboring sensitive colonies were treated as inducer strain. Both producer and inducer strains were streaked repeatedly until to get pure culture. The pure culture were properly labeled and subjected to the quorum sensing analysis.

In gram positive bacteria peptide and derivative peptide based signaling molecules seem to be the predominant mode of communication. During high cell density the marine bacteria can produce enzymes, surfactants, toxins, and antibiotics by the chemical signal communication. Marine epibiotic bacteria are also known to produce compounds active against drug resistant hospital pathogen by the cross species induction method. Building on assays described by Austin (Billaud and Austin 1990) a screening procedure has been developed in which marine bacteria are challenged by exposing them to terrestrial bacteria prior to assay of antimicrobial compounds. Hence in this present investigation it is proposed to find out the ability of sea weed epibiotic bacterial organism to produce antibacterial compounds through quorum sensing.

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

b) Among these 17-inducer strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis, 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from sediment.

ANTIBIOTIC ASSAYS Antibiotic activity was performed in duplicate using a standard paper disc diffusion method as well as well assay. In well assay 10mm in diameter wells were made in marine agar plates and the plates were swabbed with 16 hours old inducer strain. To these wells 200ul of cell free supernatant were added to each well. In paper disc assay the Watmann no.1 filter paper discs (6mm in diameter) were saturated with 200ul of cell free supernatant. The impregnant discs were Dlaced in the centre of the plates swabbed with test organisms. The plates were Incubated at 37??C overnight and observed for inhibition zone. The zone of inhibition was measured as the distance from the border of paper disc to the edge of the clear zone and expressed in mm.

Bassler, B. L., E. P. Greenberg, and A. M. Sterens. 1997. Cross species induction of luminescence in the quorum - sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. J. Bacteriology. 179: 4043-4045.

Br B+ /Br B- Br C+/Br C- Br D+/Br D- Br E+/Br E- Br F+/Br F- BrA- Br B- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- NIL 39

TEST ORGANISMS: 1. Epiphytic Vibrio from seaweeds 2. Vibrio from primary film 3. Vibrio from Sediments 4. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Proteus sp

If you can't afford to go by yourself, or with a friend, consider going on a missions trip through a church (the church will sometimes help out financially - and it can be a great place to meet some girls).

Suddenly, talking to a strange girl will be no big deal once you've been lost in the wilderness, or have taken the wrong train in Europe. Take the road less traveled, and enjoy the ride. Live. Don't be totally consumed with tomorrow and your future that you forget to live today. It's not worth it in the long run.

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

Microdictyon tenunis Chlorophyceae Chondrococcus hornemonii Chlorophyceae Enteromorpha intestinalis Chlorophyceae Caulerpa cupressoides Chlorophyceae

Pheromones are odorless and are sensed by an organ located in the nasal passage called a VNO (vomeronasal organ). It's described as a type of "sixth sense." The question of whether human pheromones can be produced in fragrance form has long been debated but it hasn't stopped the marketing of such products available today. Pheromone spray is real and has opened up a lucrative market for those savvy enough to recognize the power of this concept. The problem is identifying which products are genuine and which are just out there to make a buck. There is a simple way of determining which pheromone sprays you should consider.

Hiroaki, S., and K. M. Smith. 2003. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial quorum sensing as a new drug target. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7: 586-591. Hoang, T., Y. Ma, R. J. Stern, M. R. Meneil, and H. P. Schwezer. 1999. Construction and use of low-copy number T7 expression vectors for purification of problem proteins: purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RmID and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lasl and Rhll proteins, and functional analysis of purified Rhll. Gene. 237: 361 - 371.

Zhang, L., P. J. Murphy, and A. Kerr. 1993. Agrobacterium conjugation and gene regulation by /V-acyl-L-homoserine lactones. Nature 362: 446 - 448.

ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are sessile communities with high cell density that are ubiquitous in natural, medical, and engineering environments; they are fascinating since they are primitive tissues with an advanced chemical communications network. Currently, there is an explosive amount of biofilm research, most of it with the ultimate aims of biofilm prevention, control, or eradication.The present investigation was aimed to study the cell signaling principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms , totally 54 bacterial isolates were made out of 20 seaweed species. Among 54 bacterial isolates 17 of them producer, another 17 of them inducer strains rest of 20 isolates were normal that have not showing any signs of activity. The 17 producers and 17 inducer strains were subjected to the cross species induction by quorum sensing principle and found that only 3 of them have responded to the cross species induction in production of antibacterial compound against the respective inducer strains. All the 3 producers and inducer were identified by biochemical analysis and surprisingly that all the 3 producer strain belongs to Genus Pseudomonas and inducer strains were belongs to Genus Vibrio. The supernatant obtain from mixed culture of Pseudomonas & Vibrio shows the antibiotic activity against the various Vibrio species which were isolated from other sources. Such as Vibrio from primary film, Vibrio from sediment Vibrio from seaweeds epibiotics. The obtain results clearly shows the particular Pseudomonas from seaweed epibionts has the capability of producing potential antibiotic compound against wide range of Vibrio species through quorum sensing.


If thrill-seeking is more your cup of tea, you could parachute or scuba dive, take a tourist ride in a helicopter over the city, or try your luck in Vegas as a big spender. Some couples even attempt to climb a huge mountain as a way to bond the first time they meet. Dating on the Internet can provide couples with a true insight into each other's deepest dreams, so why not cater to the personality of our prospective mate and go all out?



Questions are meant to be answered. This is why we hope that all your questions on pheromone testimonials have been answered by this composition on pheromone testimonials.
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


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