11/14/2018

Interference With Cell-to-cell Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Approach Against Vibrio Species 

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.


According to some studies, pheromones in humans play a big role when it comes to facilitating attraction. In most instances, the effect of pheromones in humans is termed as the X factor that makes some people more appealing to certain groups of people. Scientists believe that like the insects which send out genetic coding when they excrete pheromones to attract their mate, pheromones in humans may also contain some kind of genetic coding which may be easier to decipher by certain types of people.
 




You actually learn more about the pheromone bomb only with more reading on matters pertaining to it. So the more articles you read like this, the more you learn about the pheromone bomb.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

A. Live cells of producer and inducer strains B. Live cells of producer strain alone C. Live cells of inducer strain alone In culture system A 200ul of 16 hours old broth culture of both producer and inducer strains were added to the 15 ml of nutrient broth.

In gram positive bacteria peptide and derivative peptide based signaling molecules seem to be the predominant mode of communication. During high cell density the marine bacteria can produce enzymes, surfactants, toxins, and antibiotics by the chemical signal communication. Marine epibiotic bacteria are also known to produce compounds active against drug resistant hospital pathogen by the cross species induction method. Building on assays described by Austin (Billaud and Austin 1990) a screening procedure has been developed in which marine bacteria are challenged by exposing them to terrestrial bacteria prior to assay of antimicrobial compounds. Hence in this present investigation it is proposed to find out the ability of sea weed epibiotic bacterial organism to produce antibacterial compounds through quorum sensing.

In concluding this discussion, the quorum sensing is wider spread among bacterial population then was previously thought, (In Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial communication). Current assays for antimicrobial activities are inadequate because some antibiotic producing bacteria may require the presence of another bacterial species. These findings have important implication for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria and may allow the development of new methods for screening novel compounds active against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Bassler, B.L.1999. Curr.Opin.Microbiol.2: 582-587.* Bernan, V. S., M. Greenstein, and W. M. Maiese. 1997. Marine microorganisms as a source of new natural products. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 43: 57 - 89.

The ingredients used in perfume may improve your concentration and enhance your mood. There is a long list of scents that are said to trigger this stimulating effect. Perfumes that contain ingredients such as ginger, sandalwood and rose are claimed by aromatherapists and aromacologists alike to have a stimulating effect on brain neurons. The increased stimulation aided by the use of perfume assists in many everyday tasks, from more focused studying to extra stamina and energy, balanced weight loss to an improved immune system.

Like in the case of animals and insects where the young often pick up messages through the pheromones left by their mothers, infants display distinctive characteristics of recognition. Such recognition led scientists to believe that pheromones in humans also function much like the pheromones in other species although in a less pronounced manner.

Wagner, V. E., D. Bushneil, and L. Passador. 2003. Micro array analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing regulons. J. Bacteriol, 185: 2080 - 2095.

NIL NIL NIL NIL Gracillaria edulis 7. GcA+ 8. GcB+ 9. GcC+ 10. GcD+ 11. GcE+ 12. GcF+ GcA- GcB-

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

Mckenney, D., K. E. Brown, and D. G. Allison. 1995. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproducts on virulence factor production in Burkholderia cepacia: evidence of interspecies communication. J. Bacterial 177: 6989 - 6992.

So how does attraction figure in relationships? You have probably heard that attraction is a prelude, or a factor towards a relationship. Most probably, at least in the beginning; but attraction alone cannot make a relationship work. It is that attraction that makes you notice a person from the opposite sex, but once you get to know the person more, attraction is just one consideration. Shared values, dreams, and passions become more significant in long-term relationships.

Perfume has been used throughout history for a variety of reasons. Perfume has proved itself to be a valuable commodity in both ancient and modern times, with the modern perfume industry turnover in its billions every year. Perfume is a luxury, rather than a necessity, and yet its popularity grows rather than wavers every year. The reason behind this is the enjoyment that the wearer gains, and this type of enjoyment stems from the recognised and unnoticed benefits that wearing perfume provides.

Allison, D. G., B. Ruiz, C. Sanjose, A. Jaspe, and P.Gilbert. 1998. Extracellular products as mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. FEMS Microbial Lett. 167: 179-184.

Firstly, the effect of perfume on our brains is not necessarily recognised though the effects are certainly enjoyed. Each scent, whether natural or synthetic, emits molecules which enter the nasal passages and eventually reach the olfactory epithelium. This part of the nose has a vast amount of receptor neurons which are each covered in hairs called cilia. These cilia trap the scent and send a message to the brain which enables a person to recognise the perfume. The ability to smell immediately has a positive impact. This is important as some research has shown that people without a sense of smell have a less happy life than those who can smell; scents trigger emotions and affect our mood.

Technically, pheromones in humans are linked to the reproductive process and the attraction between men and women. According to studies, the effects of pheromones in humans can be largely detected in the relationship between the mother and child. Studies have shown that infants usually display instinctive attachments to their mothers through the smell, texture and sounds that can be associated with the mother especially when she is nursing.

The discovery of pheromones in 1959 led to several developments in the areas of relationships and behaviors. Pheromones were originally associated with the chemical substances that animals usually excrete to send a message to their own species. Further research on the topic widened the definition of the word pheromones to include other species such as human beings. In fact, pheromones in humans became one of the favorite subjects of researchers all over the world.

Dekievit, T. R., and B. H. Iglewski. 2000. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infect. Immun. 66: 4839-4849. Dimango, E., H. J. Zar, R. Bryan, and A. Prince. 1995. Diverse Pseudomonas aerugniosa gene products stimulate respiratory epithelial cells to produce interleukin-8. J. Clin-lnvestig. 96: 2204-2210.

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

In the present investigation, it was aimed to produce the antibiotics from the seaweed epibionts through quorum sensing principle. The bacterial isolates of seaweed epibionts were identified as species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio from seaweeds Hypnea musiformis and Gracillaria edulis. In this study the Pseudomonas acts as a producer strain and Vibrio as inducer strain. The recent finding says that the seaweed epibionts having potential to control the metabolic activity of competitor organisms. Allison et al., 1998 reported that many bacterial strains up on attaching to a surface produce exopolysaccharides or exopolypeptides. In addition, it has been postulated that exopolysaccharides could mediate the attachment of the bacteria to the surface and induce metabolic changes.

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

Burgess, J. G., H. Miyashita, H. Sudo, and T. Matsunaga.1991. Antibiotic production by marine photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium purpuratum NKPB 031704: Localization of activity to the chromatophores. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 84: 301 - 306.

Meains - Spragg, A., M. Bregu, K. G. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Cross species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity produced by epibiotic bacteria from marine algae and invertebrates, after exposure to terrestrial bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 27: 142-146.

Whiteley, M., K.M.Lee, and E.P.Greenberg.1999. Identification of genes controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA.96:13904-13909.

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Bassler, B. L., E. P. Greenberg, and A. M. Sterens. 1997. Cross species induction of luminescence in the quorum - sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. J. Bacteriology. 179: 4043-4045.

GcD- GcE- GcF- NIL NIL 26 NIL NIL NIL Ulva lactuca 13. U1+ 14: U2+ 15. U3+ 16. U4+ U1-

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

You actually learn more about the pheromone bomb only with more reading on matters pertaining to it. So the more articles you read like this, the more you learn about the pheromone bomb.



Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

As a result of this finding, perfume has become as much a science as it has an accessory. Aromatherapy studies the effects of natural botanical perfume ingredients, usually in the form of oils in their purest state. Its looks at the effects upon mood and general well being, and applies the knowledge by improving the perfume in the environment and offering a variety of aromatherapy services aimed at improving people`s lives. Aromacology applies this same approach to any available scent, from flowers to sand, and the findings are currently assisting perfume manufacturers worldwide.

"Opposites attract" is a law of attraction, at least where electromagnetism is concerned. But are there laws about attraction between two people? "In a world that is full of strangers" as a line in a famous song of the 1980's goes, is there a clear set of rules that allows two people to fall for each other?

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

The benefits of perfume are not just highlighted by scientific study. Many psychologists state that humans begin to store information about scents when only a few months old, and that scents affect reactions to people and events more than any of the other senses at this young age. In fact, our taste in smells remains more or less the same whereas tastes influenced by other senses are extremely changeable. This means that we choose perfumes for a reason, either it triggers a feeling of nostalgia or makes us feel a certain way. The perfume chosen also has a social relevance; it tells people something about the wearer, and helps cement their identity. Attraction to another person is influenced by invisible scents known as pheromones, and perfume adds to this. Above all, perfume makes the wearer feel fresh, attractive and more confident; and confidence is a definite benefit.

Scientists believe that animals (usually the females) such as insects and mammals send out these chemical signals to tell the male of their species that their genes are different from theirs. This gene diversity is important in producing offspring with better chances of survival. The perfume industry has capitalized on pheromones as a means to increase one's sexual attractiveness to the opposite sex. Animals such as the whale and the musk deer were hunted down for these chemicals.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

Another benefit to be gained from wearing perfume is that it can relax your mood. Certain scents have aldehydes which have a calming effect on the brain. The perfume oils which have this effect include eucalyptus and citronella. Other scents can act as a form of sedative, aiding restful sleep, which helps reduce anxiety and tension which in turn creates a wealth of health benefits. The most famous of these perfumes include lavender and bergamot, which have been used for this purpose for centuries and in a variety of countries worldwide.

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:

GcA-, GcB-, GcC-, GcD- GcE-, GcF- Gracillaria edulis U1-, U2-, U3-, U4- Ulva lactuca SA- Sediment

Rheinheimer, G.1992.Aquatic microbiology (Wiley, New York), 3rd Ed. Stead, P., B. A. M. Rudd, H. Bradshaw, D. Nobel, and M. J. Dawson. 1996. Induction of phenazine biosynthesis in cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa by L-N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone. FEMS Microbiology Letters 140: 15-22.

Holmstrom, C, and S. Kjelleberg. 1994. The effect of external biological factors on, settlement of marine invertebrates and new antifouling technologies. Biofouling. 8: 147-160.

REFERENCES Alim, I., and K. Yuto. 2003. Mc21-A, a Bacteriocidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenotica sp. nov. O-Bc 30T, against Methicillin -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicro. Agents Chemoth. 47: 480 - 488.

Lately, scientists are looking into the existence of human pheromones and its role in mate selection. There are many conflicting views in the realm of biology, chemistry, genetics, and psychology. Most scientists would assert that these do not exist, or if they do, do not play a role in sexual attraction between a man and a woman. But new researches such as that conducted by Swiss researchers from the University of Bern led by Klaus Wedekind are slowly making these scientists rethink their stand. Their experiment involved women sniffing the cotton shirts of different men during their ovulation period. It was found out that women prefer the smell of men's shirts that were genetically different, but also shared similarities with the women's genes. This, like in the case of insects and other mammals, was to ensure better and healthier characteristics for their future children. But researchers also cautioned that preference for a male odor is affected by:

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

Probably not! There is wisdom in knowing yourself: who you are, your beliefs, values, and dreams. And do not pretend to be someone you are not. Fooling another person by making him/her think that you share the same values and beliefs is only going to cause you both disappointments. When you are healthy in all aspects, attractiveness becomes a consequence and not an end. As mentioned in the Klohnen and Luo's research, a person's sense of self-security matters, perhaps even beyond attraction. But remember: do these things for yourself and not for other people. Only then can you truly harness your attractiveness as a person.



Hope that after reading my article you would have learned a lot about the pheromone bomb. Let it be informative to you.
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


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