11/19/2019

Interference With Cell-to-cell Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Approach Against Vibrio Species 

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.


Armstrong, E., J. D. Mckenzie, and G.T. G. Worthy. 1999. Aquaculture of sponges on scallops for natural products research and antifouling. J. Biotechnol. 70: 163-174. 70. 21-

You should also take into consideration what mood or time of day you want to put your aphrodisiac scents to work. For example, if she's just coming home from work, then she probably wouldn't even think of hopping directly into mad and having hot, wild sex with you. She's just too tired!
 




Time and tide waits for no man. So once we got an idea for writing on npa pheromones, we decided not to waste time, but to get down to writing about it immediately!

Kell, D. B., A. S. Kaprelyants, and A. Grafen. 1995. Pheromones, Social behaviour and the functions of secondary metabolism in bacteria. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 10: 126-129.

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

Miller, M. B., and B. L. Bassler. 2001. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 165-199. Msadek, T. 1999. When the going gets tough: survival strategies and environmental signaling network in Bacillus subtilis. Trends Microbiol. 7: 201-207.

Well, that may seem a lone way off yet so for now, if you see someone nursing or know of a relative who is, better get your woman near her!

In culture system B 200ul of 16 hours old producer strain alone was inoculated. In culture system C 200ul of 16 hours old inducer strain alone was inoculated.

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

The earlier genetic analysis in Pseudomonas reveals the Pseudomonas consist of two quorum sensing systems as Las R1-I and Rh1R-l and have linked with R and I genes, in addition recently a third Lux R homolog that is advanced to a cluster of quorum sensing - controlled (qsc) genes were detected. Las R is a transcriptional regulator that responses primarily to the Las I - generated signal and Rh1R is a transcriptional regularly that responses best to the Rhl -generated signal. In Pseudomonas auriginosa, at low population densities Las I produce a basel level of 3-O-C12-HSL. As density increases, 3-0-C12-HSL builds to a critical concentration, at which point interacts with LasR. This Las R -3-0-012-HSL complex that activates transcription of a number of genes [Whileley, et al., 1999].

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION The organisms responded to the quorum sensing process alone were identified by the following biochemical analysis.

Colony morphology, Gram staining, Motility test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Indole Production, Methyl red test, Voges Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization test, Triple sugar Iron test, Nitrate reduction test, Lactose fermentation, Urease test

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

EXPERIMENT NUMBER 2 In this experiment, culture supernatant was obtained as per the procedure given in the experiment 1. 50ml of supernatant was mixed with equal volume of 80% methanol and 1% acetic acid mixture and it was shaked thoroughly in a separating funnel. Finally the methanol and acetic acid fractions were collected and concentrated by evaporation using water bath at 55??C. The viscous colloidal residues were resuspended in 600 microlitre of 50% methanol and it was used for antibacterial assay against different test organism.

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

In the gram negative bacteria AHSL is an active principle of quorum sensing. Our producer strain is also been identified as Pseudomonas sps. So in these organisms also active principle must falls under the AHSL. The cell-cell signaling mechanism can either require import of the signal and subsequent interaction with intracellular effectors or a two-component signaling system that transducers the information across the membrane. In V. harveyi genetic analysis of the density sensing apparatus has two independent density-sensing systems, and each is composed of a sensor-auto inducer pair; system one is composed of sensor I and Al -1, and system two is composed of sensor 2 and AI-2. The two densities - sensing system are redundant, because a null mutation in either system alone results in expression of hidden genes (Bassler, et al.,1999.).

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Reproduction is undoubtedly one of our instincts but as we have seen, even in the animal kingdom, the right to procreate or reproduce has to be earned through as series of physical dances or rituals in order to attract a partner, so the fact that we "can reproduce" doesn't always mean that "we will have a guaranteed partner to do it with".

Imagine ladies, just a dab of pheromone perfume and you can put your man under your spell. You'll be the envy of every female in your own imaginary Wisteria Lane!

The whole seduction ritual, in terms of humans, starts by invisible chemical reactions through pheromones which trigger our body to release other chemicals throughout our body which makes us feel "fuzzy" and attracted to another person. In humans there is also a second set of stimuli transmitted to the opposite sex, it could be visual, or auditory Knowing how attraction works will allows us to gain a better understanding to the way "seduction works".

Burgess, J. G., H. Miyashita, H. Sudo, and T. Matsunaga.1991. Antibiotic production by marine photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium purpuratum NKPB 031704: Localization of activity to the chromatophores. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 84: 301 - 306.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

GcD- GcE- GcF- NIL NIL 26 NIL NIL NIL Ulva lactuca 13. U1+ 14: U2+ 15. U3+ 16. U4+ U1-

b) Among these 17-inducer strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis, 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from sediment.

*Corresponding author e-mail: vijay10bas@yahoo.co.in INTRODUCTION We are living in a microbial planet. About 71 % of the surface of this planet is covered by sea water. A typical milliliter of seawater contains 103 fungal cells, 106 bacteria, and 107 viruses, including pathogens that cause widespread mortalities and microbes that initiate fouling of host surfaces (Rheinheimer, 1992). Thus, marine plants and animals are continually exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful microbes. These microorganisms in nature exists as free living planktonic mode of life in sea water or it may exist as epibiotic organisms in various living and nonliving surfaces. Among living organisms, seaweeds and invertebrates act as suitable substrate for the establishment of epibiotic organisms Seaweeds are known to release a large amount of organic carbon into the surrounding environment providing a nutrient rich habitat for microorganisms like bacteria. Bacteria are generally considered to be independent unicellular organisms. One cell accomplishes all of the tasks of feeding, locomotion, 'reproduction, respiration and all other processes necessary to keep an organism alive. There are several classes of bacteria such as primary film forming bacteria, sediment bacteria, symbiotic bacteria, and epibiotic bacteria in various aquatic organisms. The marine surface environment is a site of intense composition for living space by a wide variety of organisms. Bacteria are generally recognized as primary colonizers of this habitat and are able to form biofilm on marine surface such as invertebrates and algae (Bryers, et al., 1982). Bacteria may also be abundant on the surfaces of some algae as an important epibiotic organism. In many cases, the bacterial population found to be specific, with changes occurring throughout the year or life span of the algal surface. This algal-bacterial relationship is symbiotic in most cases; the epibiotic bacteria in seaweed play a protective role by releasing secondary metabolites into the surrounding seawater that help preventing extensive fouling of the surface. Epibiotic bacteria are therefore attracting attention as a source of new natural products. Bacteria from the larvae of some crustaceans protect them from fungal infection by the production of simple antimicrobial compounds. Bacteria isolated from the surface of a tunicate prevented the settlement of barnacle and tunicate larvae exposed to the bacteria as biofilm in petridishes (Evelyn et al., 2001).

Seaweeds itself secretes secondary metabolites to prevent fouling and grazing. In addition to that epibiotic bacteria on macro algae can also produce antifouling compounds that work in concert with the seaweed derived compounds to protect the seaweed surface. Recent studies have highlighted important roles of epibiotic bacteria colonizing the surface of seaweeds and releasing antifouling compounds. For the past 50 years antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing cures for formerly life threatening diseases. However, strains of bacteria have recently emerged that are virtually unresponsive to antibiotics such multidrug resistance, arising mainly through antibiotic misuse, is now recognized as a global health problem. In this situation, it is clear that new classes of antibiotics are urgently needed. Many marine bacteria have been shown to produce secondary metabolites that display antibacterial properties. The first antibiotic from a marine bacterium was identified and characterized in 1966. In addition, bacteria in biofilm on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a higher proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environments (Burgess, et al., 1999). Marine epibiotic bacteria, associated with nutrient-rich algal surfaces have also been shown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites which inhibit the settlement of potential competitors. Recently a lot new novel antibiotics such as Phenazine, thiomarinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 1-hydroxyphenazine 2-n-heptylquinol-4-one, 2-n-nonylquinol-4-one pyolipic, loloatins, agrochelin, sesbanimides, pelagiomicins, indomycione and indomycione have been identified from various marine epibiotic bacterial organisms. In particular, some species of the genus Pseudomonas produce both antibiotics and several other bioactive substances. For example, Pseudoalteromonas rubra and Pseudoalteromonas aurantia have been reported to be antibiotic producing bacteria. The phenomenon of higher organisms utilizing their associated microflora for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites is common in the marine environment (Yotsu, et al., 1987). A study of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% whereas that from sea water was only a few percent. In addition, some bacteria that previously did not produce any active compounds have been found to be producing such metabolites when they are exposed to other bacterial species or extra cellular chemical from other bacteria. Bacteria may also produce antimicrobial compounds when they sense the presence of competing organisms. However, few attempts have been made to study such chemical communication between different bacterial species or how this might affect. The secretion of antimicrobial compounds (Mearns-Spragg, et al., 1998). Bacterial communication by the chemical signals for specific function is simply known as Quorum sensing. In which a bacterial population receives input from the environment and elicits an appropriate response (Hiroaki and Kristina. 2003). The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and response to diffusible signal molecules. Bacterial cells sense their population density through a sophisticated cell to cell communication system and trigger expression of particular genes. Tne first system of density-dependent regulation was studied in detail with the luminescence of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) by Bassler et al., 1997. Eventually, they discovered that 3-oxo-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl) hexanamid or N-3-(oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL) was responsible the agent in the broth that induced luminescence. Followed by this many researchers have confirmed that in Gram negative bacteria acyl-homoserine lactone is responsible for the cell to cell communication system.

Time and tide waits for no man. So once we got an idea for writing on npa pheromones, we decided not to waste time, but to get down to writing about it immediately!



Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



Meains - Spragg, A., M. Bregu, K. G. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Cross species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity produced by epibiotic bacteria from marine algae and invertebrates, after exposure to terrestrial bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 27: 142-146.

So who do you think the blindfolded sexy woman chose as a date? The midget with the aftershave cologne! Initially, you would think here that aphrodisiac scents don't work. If it did, then she should have chosen the guy with pheromones sprayed on him. But if you think about it a bit more... you realize that SCENT does influence how a woman reacts to you! She chose the midget because she can only smell the men. Otherwise, she would have chosen the sexy hunk that smelled like sweat.

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Mckenney, D., K. E. Brown, and D. G. Allison. 1995. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproducts on virulence factor production in Burkholderia cepacia: evidence of interspecies communication. J. Bacterial 177: 6989 - 6992.

Anyway, what caught my attention was this test they did on pheromones, a known aphrodisiac scent. The test included a very sexy woman who was blindfolded. She then had to 'smell' three men and decide who she wants to date that night. The goal of the test was to determine if indeed pheromones will work.

If we think hard about it, man is driven by emotions and those strong emotions trigger certain physical responses. If we think in terms of basic instincts, we, as human beings only differ from animals by our cognitive ability everything else is ruled by our primitive brain, that is why in the game of "seduction" our basic instincts kick in. Instincts are simply "hard-coded programs" in our brain which serve important functions such as: survival, reproduction, etc. Since they are already in our brain we do not need to learn them, a good example of basic instincts can be seen in normal animal behavior and fixed action patterns.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

Lemos, M. L, A. E. Toranzod, and L. J. Barja. 1986. Antibiotic activity of epiphytic bacteria isolated from intertidal seaweeds. Microbial Ecology. 11: 149-163.

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

So don't completely disregard the power of scents as an aphrodisiac. Just don't choose one that's pheromones-based! How to Use the Power of Scent If you want to aid your sexual appeal with scents, then I suggest you pay close attention to what your woman likes. For example, if she's into lavender and vanilla-scents then go for an aftershave with a tinge of these scents. You can also light some vanilla candles or put some lavender oil on a scent burner so that your living room (or any room for that matter) brings her to a sexy state right away.

ANTIBIOTIC ASSAYS Antibiotic activity was performed in duplicate using a standard paper disc diffusion method as well as well assay. In well assay 10mm in diameter wells were made in marine agar plates and the plates were swabbed with 16 hours old inducer strain. To these wells 200ul of cell free supernatant were added to each well. In paper disc assay the Watmann no.1 filter paper discs (6mm in diameter) were saturated with 200ul of cell free supernatant. The impregnant discs were Dlaced in the centre of the plates swabbed with test organisms. The plates were Incubated at 37??C overnight and observed for inhibition zone. The zone of inhibition was measured as the distance from the border of paper disc to the edge of the clear zone and expressed in mm.

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

Br B+ /Br B- Br C+/Br C- Br D+/Br D- Br E+/Br E- Br F+/Br F- BrA- Br B- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- NIL 39

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

Spray and concentrate products then complete the manor in which pheromones are made available to the public. For women though, it seems manufacturers are starting to realize they may have been leaving money on the table when they first began their quest to turn the human population into attraction magnets.

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

Do you know the show Brainiac? It's a show in the UK that basically puts to the test everyday 'science' stuff like testing how far a shopping cart will go if a tank of CO2 is attached to it. Hilarious!


An important factor which needs to be realized in order to learn the art of seduction is that people are driven by emotions and the "emotions" triggered when someone is attracted or aroused by another person are extremely strong; they can make us spend 80K on a car or simply say "Yes!" to important business decisions.



npa pheromones are here to stay, and we have to learn to accept this in our lives. No thing or time will change the part npa pheromones play in our lives.
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


npap heromones | olve potion pheromone | oil pheromone | npa pheromones | odorless pheromones | oils with pheromones | odorless hperomones |

Lean More about "npa pheromones"

To become a good conversationalist, you need to become interesting. And to become interesting, you need to experience many different things so that you will have different, unique experiences to talk about. Once you have unique experiences to talk about, you will find it much easier to start a conversation. One way you can do this is to go traveling. I know it can be super expensive...

If you ve never heard of pheromones it is time to learn about the part they play in your sex life. The concept of a human pheromone, or sexual scent of attraction, has been debated and researched for years. Using a brain imaging technique, Swedish researchers have shown that homosexual and heterosexual men respond differently to two odors that may be involved in sexual arousal, and that the...

The discovery of pheromones in 1959 led to several developments in the areas of relationships and behaviors. Pheromones were originally associated with the chemical substances that animals usually excrete to send a message to their own species. Further research on the topic widened the definition of the word pheromones to include other species such as human beings. In fact, pheromones in humans...

Perfumes and special scents are often the first things that will be noticed when people walk into the room, so it s best to make sure you are wearing the perfume that best reflects the kind of attention your wanting, e.g. a light scent for an interview or a more powerful one on a romantic date. There are various ways to select the right perfume for yourself. Knowing how your tastes and styles...

Is there a difference between pheromone perfume and cologne? What should you consider when shopping for human pheromone products? There really isn t any difference at all. Cologne is generally targeted towards men while perfume is basically a woman s product. It s simply marketing as women would identify much more with pheromone perfume. Spray and concentrate products then complete the...

The art of seduction is a topic which has been studied since ancient times, the attraction between man and woman (etc.!) seems to drive people regardless of their intellectual state. Societies and even empires have been ruled by desire a clear example was Babylon which as we all know was famous for their, shall we say sexy parties . If we think hard about it, man is driven by emotions and...

Every creature on this planet gives off attraction signals. We are no exception. Some are blatant and some are unconscious. We are all born with the ability to physically attract others. Some of us have just cultivated this gift. Attracting and seducing men is not as difficult as many of us make it out to be. As women, we naturally send out signals. The key is to know when to send them out and...

If you have ever wondered what are pheromones you are probably not alone. In fact, there have been many people who have wondered what pheromones are, and a lot of research has been done on the topic. In the quest to find out what pheromones are, people have done research in the human world as well as the animal kingdom. This is because pheromones occur and do their work in both animal...





Pheromone Critique
Sex Pheromones to Attract Women
pheropax scam
best female atracting cologne
alter ego pheromone
gay male attractant pheromones skin2skin
with phefomo
bestsexualattractingcologne
how to make pheromoes oil at home for women
does a woman give off fragrance in heat
Sex Scent Cologne to Attract Women

 
 
 
 
Copyright (c) 2007 by gilroypheromones.com - All Rights Reserved | Site Map | RSS Feed | Npa Pheromones - Interference With Cell-to-cell Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Approach Against Vibrio Species