Ways To Add More Romance To Your Love Life 

Everyone likes romance, don't they? When we think of a romantic date we conjure up images of moonlight, fine wine, flowers, chocolates, candlelight dinners and dancing close under the stars. Are there ways to help keep that romance and magic alive as a relationship progresses? Certainly there are. Let us take a look at ways to do just that.

In concluding this discussion, the quorum sensing is wider spread among bacterial population then was previously thought, (In Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial communication). Current assays for antimicrobial activities are inadequate because some antibiotic producing bacteria may require the presence of another bacterial species. These findings have important implication for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria and may allow the development of new methods for screening novel compounds active against multidrug resistant bacteria.

Saying that all that is written here is all there is on ingredients in pheromone perfume would be an understatement. Very much more has to be learnt and propagated bout ingredients in pheromone perfume.

Based on popularity and effectiveness, some of the best pheromone products include: Chikara, Alter Ego, Scent of Eros, Rogue Male, Pheromax, Realm, The Edge, Passion Pheromone Attractant, Perception, New Pheromone Additive - NPA and Primal Instinct. These products contain different amounts of pheromones. Most pheromones can be combined with others. For example, Scent of Eros can be combined with androstenone products - Primal Instinct or The Edge.

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

Bassler, B. L., E. P. Greenberg, and A. M. Sterens. 1997. Cross species induction of luminescence in the quorum - sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. J. Bacteriology. 179: 4043-4045.

Whiteley, M., K.M.Lee, and E.P.Greenberg.1999. Identification of genes controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA.96:13904-13909.

Hypnea valentiae Rhodophyceae Hypnea pannose Rhodophyceae Hypnea esperi Rhodophyceae Acanthophora spicifera Rhodophyceae ISOLATION OF EPIPHYTIC BACTERIA

The test organisms Vibrio species were isolated from seaweed as epiphyles, biofilm, sediment and puffer fish by using TCBS medium (Hi media) The pathogenic bacteria were collected from clinical laboratories.

GcC- GcD- GcE- GcF- Gc A+/GcA- Gc B+/GcB- Gc C+/GcC- Gc D+/GcD- Gc E+ /GcE- Gc F+/GcF- GcA- GcB- GcC-

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

Burgess, J. G., M. Elizabeth, M. Bregu, A. Meams-Sprugg, and K. G. Boyd. 1999 Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70. 27-32.

Tongat Ali, like yohimbine is a plant based sexual stimulant and like the Yohimbe plant the Tongat Ali is becoming hard to find especially since it is now protected from harvest by law in Malaysia which is the original source of the Tongat Ali extract. The extract when taken in an optimum dosage greatly increases levels of free testosterone and enhances libido and sexual function far better than the aforementioned yohimbine.

Bassler, B.L.1999. Curr.Opin.Microbiol.2: 582-587.* Bernan, V. S., M. Greenstein, and W. M. Maiese. 1997. Marine microorganisms as a source of new natural products. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 43: 57 - 89.

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: SAMPLE COLLECTION: Seaweed samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve and identified up to species level by using CMFRI bulletin (14) as follows:

In gram positive bacteria peptide and derivative peptide based signaling molecules seem to be the predominant mode of communication. During high cell density the marine bacteria can produce enzymes, surfactants, toxins, and antibiotics by the chemical signal communication. Marine epibiotic bacteria are also known to produce compounds active against drug resistant hospital pathogen by the cross species induction method. Building on assays described by Austin (Billaud and Austin 1990) a screening procedure has been developed in which marine bacteria are challenged by exposing them to terrestrial bacteria prior to assay of antimicrobial compounds. Hence in this present investigation it is proposed to find out the ability of sea weed epibiotic bacterial organism to produce antibacterial compounds through quorum sensing.

Vandevivere, P., and D. L. Kirchman.1993. Attachment stimulates exopolysaccharide synthesis by a bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 3280-3286.

Touch and kiss one another at every opportunity, and this includes those non-sexual moments in time. Kissing and touching does not just have to be about foreplay before sex takes place. Smooch with each other whenever you can and make sure that your good morning and "have a good day at work" kisses are passionate and not quick and wooden such as a peck on the cheek. Pecks on the cheek are for children and not for lovers.

Do not just eat dinner together, instead turn it into a romantic dining experience. It has been said that it is "mood, not food that sets a romantic scene." You do not need to spend a lot of money for this one. Whether you are cooking a meal or ordering take out, put some fresh cut flowers in a vase, even if they come from your own yard, and then dim the lights, light some candles, pour some wine and enjoy a romantic meal together. Or maybe even cuddle up on the couch together with a pizza and watch one of your favorite romantic movies. Sharing a tub of ice cream is always a tasty way to be romantic together.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

U2- U3- U4- U1+/U1- U2+/U2- U3+/U3- U4+/U4- U1- U2- U3- U4- NIL NIL NIL NIL Sediment 17. SA+ SA- SA+/SA- SA- 28

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: QUORUM SENSING/CROSS SPECIES INDUCTION ANALYSIS In the present investigation totally 54 isolates were collected out of seaweed species. Among 54 isolates, 17 of them are producer strain, another 17 are the inducer strain rest of 20 isolates is normal and not showing any signs of activity (Table.2).

Colony morphology, Gram staining, Motility test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Indole Production, Methyl red test, Voges Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization test, Triple sugar Iron test, Nitrate reduction test, Lactose fermentation, Urease test

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION The organisms responded to the quorum sensing process alone were identified by the following biochemical analysis.

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

Patterson, G. L., and C. Ml. Bolis. 1997. Fungal cell - wall poly sacchraides elicit an antifungal secondary metabolite in the Cyanobacterium Scytonema ocellatum. J. Phycology. 33: 54 - 60.

Holmstrom, C, D. Rittschof, and S. Kjelleberg. 1992. Inhibition of settlement by larvae of Balanus amphitrite by a surface - colonizing marine bacterium. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 2111 -2115.

Starch hydrolysis test, Protein hydrolysis test, Lipid hydrolysis test, Oxidative / Fermentative test, Salt concentration (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%), TCBS, Growth in Temperature, 42??C and 47??C

CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

So, where to start? Use one product and pay attention to the reactions of men or women around you. Then try another pheromone product. The key with testing a product is to be persistent and to test in different situations. You cannot just apply pheromones then sit back and wait. Don't be discouraged if you don't see results immediately. Remember that everybody has unique body chemistry. Try different dosage or a different mix of two or more pheromone colognes. Testing is the best way to find out what works for you. And it's not expensive - there are a lot of free pheromone samples available - and pheromone kits for beginners as well.

Saying that all that is written here is all there is on ingredients in pheromone perfume would be an understatement. Very much more has to be learnt and propagated bout ingredients in pheromone perfume.

Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne

Dekievit, T. R., and B. H. Iglewski. 2000. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infect. Immun. 66: 4839-4849. Dimango, E., H. J. Zar, R. Bryan, and A. Prince. 1995. Diverse Pseudomonas aerugniosa gene products stimulate respiratory epithelial cells to produce interleukin-8. J. Clin-lnvestig. 96: 2204-2210.

But Tongkat Ali, just like Yohimbe is a slow-growing shrub, and besides that, the active ingredient is found for the most part in the root. The root, which grows deep into poor hard soil, is very difficult to extract. Large holes must be dug to extract them and therefore in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, they have now started using the stems and branches of the shrub, instead of relying on the root. Just as there is nearly no yohimbine in the barks of pausinystalia species other than pausinystalia yohimbe, there are almost no active ingredients in tongkat ali stem and branches (the active ingredients are part of the root).

Cappuccino J. G., and N. Shermann. 1999. Microbiology, A Laboratory manual, Fourth edition, Addison Wesley, New York. Davies, D. G., M. R. Parsek, J. P. Pearson, B. H. Iglewski, J. W. Costerton, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell to cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science. 280: 295-298.

Yotsu, T., Y.Meguro, A. Endo, M. Murate, H. Naold, and T. Yasumoto.1987. Production of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. Toxicon 25: 225 - 228

GcA-, GcB-, GcC-, GcD- GcE-, GcF- Gracillaria edulis U1-, U2-, U3-, U4- Ulva lactuca SA- Sediment

Read sexy literature to each other in bed or when you are cuddled up together on the couch. Take turns being the narrator and if asked to reread a particularly erotic scene do so willingly. Fiction can be very romantic if you choose the right books to read. Both the reading and the listening can be very romantic for both parties. Women in particular enjoy the sound of their lover's voice as he reads steamy fiction to her in a romantic setting.

Tongat Ali is an herbal supplement that is used as a sexual stimulant. Never heard of it? Don't feel bad you are in good company; it is still not widely known about.

c) The normal 20 bacterial strains isolated from 20 algal species were crossed with terrestrial bacteria such as E-coli, Staphylococcus aureus separately

Liming, Y., G. K. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Surface induced attachment induced production of Antimicrobial compounds by marine epibiotic Bacteria using modified Roller Bottle. Mar. Biotechnology. 4: 356 - 366.

Caulerpa racemosa Chlorophyceae Dictyota dichotoma Phaeophyceae Turbinaria ornata Phaeophyceae Padina gymnospora Phaeophyceae Sargassum cinearifolium Phaeophyceae

Hiroaki, S., and K. M. Smith. 2003. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial quorum sensing as a new drug target. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7: 586-591. Hoang, T., Y. Ma, R. J. Stern, M. R. Meneil, and H. P. Schwezer. 1999. Construction and use of low-copy number T7 expression vectors for purification of problem proteins: purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RmID and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lasl and Rhll proteins, and functional analysis of purified Rhll. Gene. 237: 361 - 371.

b) Among these 17-inducer strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis, 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from sediment.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

The results of Vanderivere and Kirchman 1993 suggest that the addition of increased surface by adding sand will induce the exopolymer synthesis through the high cell density dependent system. In the same way the bacterial organisms attached to the surface of seaweed shows alteration of genes expression may be due to the response to the high competitive environment. When cell density increases the competition for space and nutrients are also increased. So the existing bacteria were forced to protect themselves in this competitive environment. Normally in this condition the bacteria will be activated to induce the expression of certain hidden genes in genetic material through quorum sensing. The quorum sensing is principles were active compounds (autoinducer) from bacterial cell will promote the expression of a particular hidden gene of other bacterial organism in a stressed condition.

Seaweeds itself secretes secondary metabolites to prevent fouling and grazing. In addition to that epibiotic bacteria on macro algae can also produce antifouling compounds that work in concert with the seaweed derived compounds to protect the seaweed surface. Recent studies have highlighted important roles of epibiotic bacteria colonizing the surface of seaweeds and releasing antifouling compounds. For the past 50 years antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing cures for formerly life threatening diseases. However, strains of bacteria have recently emerged that are virtually unresponsive to antibiotics such multidrug resistance, arising mainly through antibiotic misuse, is now recognized as a global health problem. In this situation, it is clear that new classes of antibiotics are urgently needed. Many marine bacteria have been shown to produce secondary metabolites that display antibacterial properties. The first antibiotic from a marine bacterium was identified and characterized in 1966. In addition, bacteria in biofilm on the surface of marine organisms have been documented to contain a higher proportion of antibiotic producing bacteria than some other marine environments (Burgess, et al., 1999). Marine epibiotic bacteria, associated with nutrient-rich algal surfaces have also been shown to produce antibacterial secondary metabolites which inhibit the settlement of potential competitors. Recently a lot new novel antibiotics such as Phenazine, thiomarinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 1-hydroxyphenazine 2-n-heptylquinol-4-one, 2-n-nonylquinol-4-one pyolipic, loloatins, agrochelin, sesbanimides, pelagiomicins, indomycione and indomycione have been identified from various marine epibiotic bacterial organisms. In particular, some species of the genus Pseudomonas produce both antibiotics and several other bioactive substances. For example, Pseudoalteromonas rubra and Pseudoalteromonas aurantia have been reported to be antibiotic producing bacteria. The phenomenon of higher organisms utilizing their associated microflora for the production of beneficial secondary metabolites is common in the marine environment (Yotsu, et al., 1987). A study of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% whereas that from sea water was only a few percent. In addition, some bacteria that previously did not produce any active compounds have been found to be producing such metabolites when they are exposed to other bacterial species or extra cellular chemical from other bacteria. Bacteria may also produce antimicrobial compounds when they sense the presence of competing organisms. However, few attempts have been made to study such chemical communication between different bacterial species or how this might affect. The secretion of antimicrobial compounds (Mearns-Spragg, et al., 1998). Bacterial communication by the chemical signals for specific function is simply known as Quorum sensing. In which a bacterial population receives input from the environment and elicits an appropriate response (Hiroaki and Kristina. 2003). The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and response to diffusible signal molecules. Bacterial cells sense their population density through a sophisticated cell to cell communication system and trigger expression of particular genes. Tne first system of density-dependent regulation was studied in detail with the luminescence of Photobacterium fischeri (formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) by Bassler et al., 1997. Eventually, they discovered that 3-oxo-N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl) hexanamid or N-3-(oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL) was responsible the agent in the broth that induced luminescence. Followed by this many researchers have confirmed that in Gram negative bacteria acyl-homoserine lactone is responsible for the cell to cell communication system.

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

All the 17 strains were named as PRODUCERS STAINS BrA+, BrB+, BrC+, BrD+, BrE+, BrF+ Hypnea musiformis GcA+, GcB+, GcC+, GcD+, GcE+, GcF+ Gracillaria edulis

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.

This experiment does not showed any inhibition zones Bacterial identification The 3 producer and 3 inducer strains which were responded the quorum sensing principles alone were subjected to biochemical analysis for identification. The obtained results revealed that all the producer strains showed sings of Pseudomonas sps and the inducer strains showed signs of Vibrio sps. So, based on the obtained result all the producer strains seems to be a Pseudomonas sps where as all the Inducer strain belongs to the genus vibrio.

But on the northern tip of Sumatra (Aceh province of Indonesia) where the Tsunami occurred there still exist forests with a large areas of Tongkat Ali coverage. Tongkat ali from the Indonesia Aceh province can be purchased in wholesale and retail quantities from Sumatra Pasak Bumi.

We give you the authority to voice your opinions on this article on ingredients in pheromone perfume. However, we do fervently hope that you voice positive opinions.
Author Dave Thomson

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