7/24/2019

Interference With Cell-to-cell Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Approach Against Vibrio Species 

Vijaya baskar .P 1* AND Veera ravi.A 2 1. Department of biotechnology Dr. G.R.D.C.S, Coimbatore. 2. Department of biotechnology, Alagappa University, karaikudi.


Burgess, J. G., E. M. Jordan, M. Bregu, and A. Mearns-spragg. 1999. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70: 27-32.

Rheinheimer, G.1992.Aquatic microbiology (Wiley, New York), 3rd Ed. Stead, P., B. A. M. Rudd, H. Bradshaw, D. Nobel, and M. J. Dawson. 1996. Induction of phenazine biosynthesis in cultures Pseudomonas aeruginosa by L-N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone. FEMS Microbiology Letters 140: 15-22.
 




With people wanting to learn more about passion pheromones, it has provided the necessary incentive for us to write this interesting article on passion pheromones!

The complexities of the subject matter within this article strive to give you a better look at what this subject is all about.

Mckenney, D., K. E. Brown, and D. G. Allison. 1995. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoproducts on virulence factor production in Burkholderia cepacia: evidence of interspecies communication. J. Bacterial 177: 6989 - 6992.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: QUORUM SENSING/CROSS SPECIES INDUCTION ANALYSIS In the present investigation totally 54 isolates were collected out of seaweed species. Among 54 isolates, 17 of them are producer strain, another 17 are the inducer strain rest of 20 isolates is normal and not showing any signs of activity (Table.2).

Dekievit, T. R., and B. H. Iglewski. 2000. Bacterial quorum sensing in pathogenic relationships. Infect. Immun. 66: 4839-4849. Dimango, E., H. J. Zar, R. Bryan, and A. Prince. 1995. Diverse Pseudomonas aerugniosa gene products stimulate respiratory epithelial cells to produce interleukin-8. J. Clin-lnvestig. 96: 2204-2210.

Do pheromone oils do what they claim to do? This is now a well worn question and one which is difficult to answer. If you are considering playing the synthesized pheromone game then you need to consider a few things before diving into your purse or wallet and purchasing the first product you come across.

What makes a guy and a daughter plunge in adoration? Is it the way they look? We have had a lot of fun during the first portion of this article and hopefully you feel as though you have a firm grasp on the topic.

This article seeks to give you a solid knowledge base regarding the subject matter at hand, no matter what your previous experience on the topic. What draws you to the contrary sex?

CONCLUSION: The present investigation was aimed to study the quorum sensing principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms. In the past few decades there was no findings of new novel antibacterial class compounds were identified. But, the pathogenic microorganisms show much higher rate of resistant development even to the potential antibiotics. So, there is an urgent need to discover new novel antibiotic compounds. The marine inhabitants such as microorganisms, seaweeds, invertebrates, etc., act as an undepleted source of wide range of natural products among which the seaweeds act as a potential source of antibiotic compounds. Currently the cross species induction / quorum sensing attracts the total attention of researchers in finding new novel drugs against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. So, the present study aim to find out the capability of seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms to produce novel drugs against the animal and plant pathogens

Whiteley, M., K.M.Lee, and E.P.Greenberg.1999. Identification of genes controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA.96:13904-13909.

That's a simple shortlist of checkpoints you can perform before considering a pheromone oil product. The second point is extremely important. A company which produces it's own product in-house is usually a good sign that they aim to be in business a long time. Even more importantly, you can bet they have conducted plenty of research on the product and will continue to do so in future.

Vandevivere, P., and D. L. Kirchman.1993. Attachment stimulates exopolysaccharide synthesis by a bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 3280-3286.

Meains - Spragg, A., M. Bregu, K. G. Boyd, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Cross species induction and enhancement of antimicrobial activity produced by epibiotic bacteria from marine algae and invertebrates, after exposure to terrestrial bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 27: 142-146.

Miller, M. B., and B. L. Bassler. 2001. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 165-199. Msadek, T. 1999. When the going gets tough: survival strategies and environmental signaling network in Bacillus subtilis. Trends Microbiol. 7: 201-207.

Bassler, B.L.1999. Curr.Opin.Microbiol.2: 582-587.* Bernan, V. S., M. Greenstein, and W. M. Maiese. 1997. Marine microorganisms as a source of new natural products. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 43: 57 - 89.

All the cultures were incubated at 28??C for 5 days. After the incubation period the cultures were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15mins. The supernatant was collected and subjected to antibacterial assay with respective inducer strain.

Perfumes are regularly worn like pheromones, for that aphrodisiac produce. Look at all the imbue ads. They commonly heart around romance, or seduction.

The earlier genetic analysis in Pseudomonas reveals the Pseudomonas consist of two quorum sensing systems as Las R1-I and Rh1R-l and have linked with R and I genes, in addition recently a third Lux R homolog that is advanced to a cluster of quorum sensing - controlled (qsc) genes were detected. Las R is a transcriptional regulator that responses primarily to the Las I - generated signal and Rh1R is a transcriptional regularly that responses best to the Rhl -generated signal. In Pseudomonas auriginosa, at low population densities Las I produce a basel level of 3-O-C12-HSL. As density increases, 3-0-C12-HSL builds to a critical concentration, at which point interacts with LasR. This Las R -3-0-012-HSL complex that activates transcription of a number of genes [Whileley, et al., 1999].

Quorum sensing usually focused on the bacteria growing in homogeneous environment. However few studies have attempted to a study this principle in heterogeneous environment also. In this present investigation we have attempted to study both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous environment. In former one we have isolated producer strain in seaweed eipbionts and it shows inhibitory activity against the inducer organism at the same seaweed epibionts. Later producer strains from seaweed epibionts, were treated with various Vibrio organisms from different environment. The obtain result of this study shows that the producer strain are capable of secreting antibiotic compounds not only to their natural competitors in its own habitate but also to the pathogen inhabiting in a distant related environment.

Evelyn, A., Y. Liming, K.G. Boyd, P. C. Wright, and J. G. Burgess. 2001. The symbiotic role of marine microbes on living surfaces. Hydrobiologia. 461: 37 - 40

Bainton, N. J., P. Stead, and S.R. Chhabra. 1992. N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine Lactone regulated carbapenem antiobiotic production in Erwinia carotovora. Biochem. J. 288: 997-1004.

Wagner, V. E., D. Bushneil, and L. Passador. 2003. Micro array analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing regulons. J. Bacteriol, 185: 2080 - 2095.

Fougere is a French fragrance that has gained huge popularity in the United States. Literally translated it means "fern," and has an interested fragrance blend of musty moss-like aroma with herbs such as lavender. Men have a particular fondness for this perfume for its subtle blended scent.

TEST ORGANISMS: 1. Epiphytic Vibrio from seaweeds 2. Vibrio from primary film 3. Vibrio from Sediments 4. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Proteus sp

Boyd, K.G., A. Mearns -Soragg, G. Briedley, K. Hatzidimitriou, A. Rennie, M. Bregu, M. 0. Hubble, and J. G. Burgess. 1998. Antifouling potential of epiphytic marine bacteria from the surface of marine algae. Plouzane, France: 128 -136.

One of the more musky yet strong aromas falls in the leather category. Leather fragrances have almost an animal like smokiness to them that is suitable for men and some women, although it is not recommended to purchase leather fragrances as a gift for women since it matches very few female pheromones. The leather scents are reminiscent of the aroma that tanning animal hides gives off. While it is not a fragrance for everyone, those for whom it works for creates a very original scent that can be very attractive.

Lemos, M. L, A. E. Toranzod, and L. J. Barja. 1986. Antibiotic activity of epiphytic bacteria isolated from intertidal seaweeds. Microbial Ecology. 11: 149-163.

The citrus family of perfumes is, as expected, a fruity scent derived from natural fruit oils. Pomello and lemon and orange and even grapefruit are among the most popular bases for citrus perfumes. Typically younger individuals prefer the citrus based over most other fragrances.

Ines, M. M., B. Karaigher, U. Cepon, and I. Mahne. 2003. Variability of the Quorum sensing system in natural isolates of Bacillus sp., Food technol. Biotechnol. 41: 23 - 28.

Holmstrom, C, and S. Kjelleberg. 1994. The effect of external biological factors on, settlement of marine invertebrates and new antifouling technologies. Biofouling. 8: 147-160.

Caulerpa racemosa Chlorophyceae Dictyota dichotoma Phaeophyceae Turbinaria ornata Phaeophyceae Padina gymnospora Phaeophyceae Sargassum cinearifolium Phaeophyceae

Hypnea musiformis 1. BrA+ 2. BrB+ 3. BrC+ 4. BrD+ 5. BrE+ 6. BrF+ BrA- BrB- BrC- BrD- BrE- BrF- Br A+ /Br A-

In this present work the totally 54 isolates were screened from 20 different seaweed species out of which 34 species were showed the signs of quorum sensing i.e. 17 producer and 17 inducer strains, but when these organisms where subjected to quorum sensing principle in mixed culture only 3 them have responded. So the present study reveals around 17% of bacterial species isolated from seaweeds and sediment were responded to quorum sensing. According to the results of bacteria isolated from marine algae surfaces indicated that the incidence of antibiotic producing strains from this habitat was 20% where as that from sea water was only a few percent. In the present study also reveals more or less the same ratio in Pseudomonas spp. was observed. Our results also reveals a results of Kell et al., 1995; Stead et al., 1996; they have said the culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sps known to contain AHLS which induces the production of phenazine antibiotics. In this investigation due to time constraint, It was not attempted to identify the active compound secreted by Pseudomonas through quorum sensing, which may leave the space for the further intensive research in future.

With people wanting to learn more about passion pheromones, it has provided the necessary incentive for us to write this interesting article on passion pheromones!



Icebreaker Pheromone Cologne



Table 2: The results of Quorum Sensing analysis of epibiotic bacterial isolates from seaweeds. Seaweed sample Producer organism Inducer organism Cross-species producer with inducer Cross-species supernatant test with inducer Zone of clearance (mm)

Choosing A Product Okay, let's purchase a pheromone oil product. Searching online we come across some likely candidates. Some are cheaper than others while some are offering some pretty sweet deals such as a two-for-one offer. Let's narrow it down:

QUORUM SENSING EXPERIMENT NUMBER 1 In this present study, the producer and inducer strains were cross reacted to find out the production of antibiotic compound through quorum sensing. Totally three set of cultures were maintained as follows (along with one as control).

The woody fragrances are somewhat similar to the leathers, but with a more outdoor smell. With a scent that very closely matches that of the smell of burning wood, Sandalwood is the most popular of the woody fragrances. Sandalwood is popular for perfumes as well as fragrance oils and even incense.

BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION The organisms responded to the quorum sensing process alone were identified by the following biochemical analysis.

U1+, U2+, U3+, U4+ Ulva lactuca SA+ Sediment INDUCER STRAIN BrA-, BrB-, BrC-, BrD-, BrE-, BrF- Hypnea musiformis

The results of Vanderivere and Kirchman 1993 suggest that the addition of increased surface by adding sand will induce the exopolymer synthesis through the high cell density dependent system. In the same way the bacterial organisms attached to the surface of seaweed shows alteration of genes expression may be due to the response to the high competitive environment. When cell density increases the competition for space and nutrients are also increased. So the existing bacteria were forced to protect themselves in this competitive environment. Normally in this condition the bacteria will be activated to induce the expression of certain hidden genes in genetic material through quorum sensing. The quorum sensing is principles were active compounds (autoinducer) from bacterial cell will promote the expression of a particular hidden gene of other bacterial organism in a stressed condition.

Allison, D. G., B. Ruiz, C. Sanjose, A. Jaspe, and P.Gilbert. 1998. Extracellular products as mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. FEMS Microbial Lett. 167: 179-184.

Korber, D. R., J. R.Lawrence, H. M. Lappin-scott, and J. W. Costerton. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on surfaces. In. Microbial. Biofilm, Lapp in - Scott. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press.

Bryers, J. D., and W. G. Characklis. 1982. Processes governing primary biofilm formation. Bioeng. 24: 2451-2476 Burgess, J. G., K. Boyd, E. Armstrong, T. Pisacane, and D. R. Adams. 2003. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint. Biofouling. 19: 197 -205.

In the present investigation, it was aimed to produce the antibiotics from the seaweed epibionts through quorum sensing principle. The bacterial isolates of seaweed epibionts were identified as species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio from seaweeds Hypnea musiformis and Gracillaria edulis. In this study the Pseudomonas acts as a producer strain and Vibrio as inducer strain. The recent finding says that the seaweed epibionts having potential to control the metabolic activity of competitor organisms. Allison et al., 1998 reported that many bacterial strains up on attaching to a surface produce exopolysaccharides or exopolypeptides. In addition, it has been postulated that exopolysaccharides could mediate the attachment of the bacteria to the surface and induce metabolic changes.

All the above mentioned biochemical tests were performed by following standard methodology given in the Microbiological Laboratory Manual by James 3.Cappuccino (1999).

Liming, Y., K. G. Boyd, and D. R. Adams. 2003. Biofilm specific cross species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. AppI.Envi.Microbiol, 69:3719-3727.

Microdictyon tenunis Chlorophyceae Chondrococcus hornemonii Chlorophyceae Enteromorpha intestinalis Chlorophyceae Caulerpa cupressoides Chlorophyceae

a) Among these 17 producers strain 6 strains were isolated from Hypnea musiformis. 6 from Gracillaria edulis, 4 from Ulva lactuca & 1 from Sediment.

Mearns - Spragg, A., K. G. Boyd, and M. O. Hubble. 1997. Antibiotics from surface associated marine bacteria. Proceedings of the fourth underwater science symposium. The society for underwater Technology, London: 147 - 157.

Human pheromone oils are fast becoming the "secret weapon" of singles looking for an edge in the game of sex. Let's face it, for most of us, any kind of advantage is welcome!

3. Check contact information. Can the company be contacted either by email or phone. Both would be preferred. Do a test with their email address and see if you get a response. A prompt response is a good sign, usually within 24-48 hours.

Jasmine, patchouli, sandalwood, rose, ylang ylang and a number of other aromatherapy oils worn in imbuery are known for their aphrodisiac properties.

GcC- GcD- GcE- GcF- Gc A+/GcA- Gc B+/GcB- Gc C+/GcC- Gc D+/GcD- Gc E+ /GcE- Gc F+/GcF- GcA- GcB- GcC-

GcD- GcE- GcF- NIL NIL 26 NIL NIL NIL Ulva lactuca 13. U1+ 14: U2+ 15. U3+ 16. U4+ U1-

ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilms are sessile communities with high cell density that are ubiquitous in natural, medical, and engineering environments; they are fascinating since they are primitive tissues with an advanced chemical communications network. Currently, there is an explosive amount of biofilm research, most of it with the ultimate aims of biofilm prevention, control, or eradication.The present investigation was aimed to study the cell signaling principle among seaweed epibiotic bacterial organisms , totally 54 bacterial isolates were made out of 20 seaweed species. Among 54 bacterial isolates 17 of them producer, another 17 of them inducer strains rest of 20 isolates were normal that have not showing any signs of activity. The 17 producers and 17 inducer strains were subjected to the cross species induction by quorum sensing principle and found that only 3 of them have responded to the cross species induction in production of antibacterial compound against the respective inducer strains. All the 3 producers and inducer were identified by biochemical analysis and surprisingly that all the 3 producer strain belongs to Genus Pseudomonas and inducer strains were belongs to Genus Vibrio. The supernatant obtain from mixed culture of Pseudomonas & Vibrio shows the antibiotic activity against the various Vibrio species which were isolated from other sources. Such as Vibrio from primary film, Vibrio from sediment Vibrio from seaweeds epibiotics. The obtain results clearly shows the particular Pseudomonas from seaweed epibionts has the capability of producing potential antibiotic compound against wide range of Vibrio species through quorum sensing.

The most popular based on sales is the floral category. Floral scents are typically a varying concoction of flower aromas blended together for a unique scent. Jasmine, gardenia, and rose bases are the most popular of the popular, often for their unique blending style and their ability to match most body chemistries. Floral scents can vary from very strong to very mild.

Then there is musk which on its own, is a heady manly trail. With other trails, it might be barely detectable yet it gives the imbue spray an air of mystery. Even the lightest, most fancy imbues inhibit a follow of musk.

REFERENCES Alim, I., and K. Yuto. 2003. Mc21-A, a Bacteriocidal antibiotic produced by a new marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas phenotica sp. nov. O-Bc 30T, against Methicillin -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicro. Agents Chemoth. 47: 480 - 488.

Zhang, L., P. J. Murphy, and A. Kerr. 1993. Agrobacterium conjugation and gene regulation by /V-acyl-L-homoserine lactones. Nature 362: 446 - 448.

Burgess, J. G., M. Elizabeth, M. Bregu, A. Meams-Sprugg, and K. G. Boyd. 1999 Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural products research. J. Biotechnology. 70. 27-32.

Table 1. List of Seaweeds species collected for the present study SPECIES NAME FAMILY Halimeda gracilis Chlorophyceae Ulva lactuca Chlorophyceae

Among insects, a starving cockroach on the edge of vanishing from famine would instead survey the follow of pheromones with the trust of mating, instead than go for the food that would keep his life.

The test organisms Vibrio species were isolated from seaweed as epiphyles, biofilm, sediment and puffer fish by using TCBS medium (Hi media) The pathogenic bacteria were collected from clinical laboratories.

Humans are not safe from the property of pheromones moreover. That fuzzy sentiment a female gets near the specter of her unique guy could well be due to pheromones. similarly, men are drawed to a female, by her looks, her personality, and the pheromones she productss.


The Oriental aromas are more balsamic with a hint of oak moss, animal scents, or vanilla which creates a noticeable lingering in the air. Obsession is a very popular brand of an Oriental based perfume. Oriental perfumes are considered quite full if not even "heavy."



Writing about passion pheromones has led us to learn unknown things about passion pheromones. This is the main reason for us to write this article; to make it fruitful to you!
Author Dave Thomson
 
 
 


perfuem cologne attract woman | pehromone perfume spray | pen perfume for men | passion pheromone attractant | passion pheromones | pehromones products | pen perfume for women |

Lean More about "passion pheromones"

People go about initiating relationships in different ways for many different reasons. When men and women have limited time for the dating scene, they often go online to prospect for a relationship with a member of the opposite sex. Online dating sites allow members to get to know each other by letting them screen potential dates for the things they have in common, such as a disability, or...

Dating on the Internet can be anything from mundane to bizarre. All kinds of interesting, and not so interesting things can happen. One circumstance is putting two people together of similar financial backgrounds. Something a little different would be to pair one frugal soul up with someone who s used to extravagant spending. Either way can be fun, let s explore both. Before you and...

Some men and women get intimidated reading other people s online profiles. That intimidation factor prevents them from putting their profile online because they fear appearing inadequate. It s Saturday night and you re stuck at home with a bad book because you don t feel like you measure up to the rest of the online dating pool. You might even have the guts to give match-making a shot and...

Human pheromones in their natural sense have been identified as being the silent attractant between men and women but can they prove useful in an artificial sense? Is it possible to use a pheromone spray and create that invisible magic leaving your competition wallowing in your wake. Human pheromone products have gradually become a part of the fragrance landscape during the past few years...

There is a new trend is selecting the right fragrance for someone you love known as personalized perfume. The personalized perfume sites offer to create a fragrance based on your loved one s personality and then create a customized blend just for them. While the idea is definitely quite unique, and the gift idea is really very cute and sweet, there is an inherent problem with basing a perfume...

Pheromones are interesting things; however they can be tricky as well. Basically, pheromones are what attract us to other people. They are found in the animal world, the insect world, and the human world as well. We secrete chemicals that members of the opposite sex can notice. We also secrete chemicals that members of the same sex notice. Basically, pheromones are these chemicals, secreted...

Understanding the various varieties of perfume can help to cut through the difficulty in selecting a fragrance. With so many variances within each category, choosing exactly the right aroma for your body or anyone else s for that matter, is no easy task. The most popular based on sales is the floral category. Floral scents are typically a varying concoction of flower aromas blended together...

Have you ever wondered why people wear cologne or perfume and go out of their way to always smell good? What factors influence them to wear a particular scent or brand? Well, they have their reasons and you probably could be one of them too who just can t go out without a good spray of your favorite scent. Basically, people wear cologne or perfume to make themselves smell good. They could...





best women attractant cologn
alter ego phermone
Best Pheromones to Attract Women
cologne that turns women on
icebreaker pheromone cologne scam
cologne that turns women on
winnifred cutler scam
do pheramones really work
sandlewood androstanone
do pheromone colognes work

 
 
 
 
Copyright (c) 2007 by gilroypheromones.com - All Rights Reserved | Site Map | RSS Feed | Passion Pheromones - Interference With Cell-to-cell Signaling: a Potential Therapeutic Approach Against Vibrio Species